Edu Exams » GATE
is an allIndia examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidate in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering/ Technology / Architecture and postgraduate level subjects in Science. The GATE score of a candidate reflects a relative performance level in a particular subject in the exam across several years. The score is used for admissions to postgraduate programs (e.g., M.E., M.Tech, direct Ph.D.) in Indian institutes of higher education with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other Government agencies. The score may also be used by Public and Private Sector Undertakings for employment screening purposes.
Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an allIndia examination that tests analytical, comprehensive and basic understanding of a candidate in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering/Architecture/Technology and postgraduate level subjects in Science. The score secured by the candidate is used for admission into postgraduate programs (M.E, M.Tech, direct Ph.D) in Indian institutes for higher education with scholarships provided by Governmental agencies and Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). The score is also used by Public and Private sector undertakings for their screening process.
The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs at Bombay,Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) jointly administer the conduct of GATE. The operations related to GATE in each of the 8 zones are managed by a zonal GATE Office at the IITs or IISc. The Organizing Institute(OI) is responsible for the endtoend process and coordination amongst the administering Institutes. The Organizing Institute for GATE 2015 is IIT Kanpur.
Financial Assistance :
A valid GATE score is essential for obtaining financial assistance during Master’s programs and direct Doctoral programs in Engineering/Technology/Architecture, and Doctoral programs in relevant branches of Science in Institutes supported by the MHRD or other Government agencies. As per the directives of the MHRD, the following procedure is to be adopted for admission to the postgraduate programs(Master’s and Doctoral) with MHRD scholarship/assistantship. Depending upon the norms adopted by a specific institute or department of the Institute, a candidate may be admitted directly into a course based on his/her performance in GATE only or based on his/her performance in GATE and an admission test/interview conducted by the department to which he/she has applied and/or the candidate’s academic record.If the candidate is to be selected through test/interview for post graduate programs, a minimum of 70% weightage will be given to the performance in GATE and the remaining 30% weightage will be given to the candidate’s performance interest/interview and/or academic record, as per MHRD guidelines. The admitting institutes could however prescribe a minimum passing percentage of marks in the test/interview. Some colleges/institutes specify GATE qualification as the mandatory requirement even for admission without MHRD scholarship/assistantship.
Employment :
Several public sector undertaking have, in the past, used GATE scores for screening for providing asalaried employment. A select few such organizations are: Indian Oil Corporation Limited, National Thermal Power Corporation, Power Grid India, etc.
Note: GATE administration is not responsible for employment opportunities. The qualified candidates must check newspapers and other reliable sources for any such information.
Administration :
GATE is administered and conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) on behalf of the National Coordination Board(NCB)GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India. The GATE committee, which comprises of representatives from these administering institutes, is the sole authority for regulating the examination and declaring the results.
GATE is conducted through the collaboration of eight zones. The zones and the corresponding administrative institutes are:
Zone1:  Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 
Zone2:  
Zone3:  
Zone4:  
Zone5:  
Zone6:  
Zone7:  
Zone8: 
The overall coordination and responsibility of conducting GATE2015 lies with
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, which is designated as the Organizing Institutefor GATE 2015 .
1. Examinations for all the 22 papers will be conducted by an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT).
The online examination paper will contain some questions forwhich numerical answers must be keyed in by the candidate using the virtual keypad. Rest of the questions shall be of Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) type.
2. Biometric information (Photograph and Fingerprints) for randomly selected candidates maybe captured before the start of the examination.
3. GATE 2015 examinations will be held during forenoon and afternoon sessions on alternate weekends (Saturday and Sunday) between 31 ^{st } January 2015 and 14 ^{th }February 2015. Examination for some of the papers in GATE 2015 will be held in multiple sessions. Exact details regarding complete examination schedule will be notified at a later date.
4. For GATE 2015 the entire process of filling up of application form, uploading of certificates/documents, etc., will be online and the candidates should not send any hard copy of their application form/documents, etc., to any of the IIT/IISc zonal GATE office.
5. The payment of application fees would be online through different modes like net banking,debit/credit card, echallan, etc.
6. The admit cards for GATE 2015 would be available through the online process only.Candidates can download their admit card from GATE 2015 website. No hard copy of admit cards will be posted to the candidates.
General Information on GATE 2015 :
1. Application Process: For GATE 2015 all information related to the candidates will be available in a single GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS).Candidates have to register and fill the application via ONLINE mode ONLY by accessing the zonal GATE websites of IISc and any of the seven IITs. The photograph and signature of the applicant must be uploaded during the online application. Please note that all necessary certificates, such as, degree certificate/certificate from the Principal and the category certificate, if any are also to be uploaded. Please note that application forms are not available for sale anywhere else.
2. Downloadable Admit Card: Admit cards will NOT be sent by email/post, they can ONLY be downloaded from the zonal GATE websites tentatively from 17 ^{th }December 2014. The candidate has to bring the printed admit card to the test center along with at least one original (not photocopied/scanned copy) and valid (not expired) photo identification. It may be noted that one of the following photo identifications is ONLY permitted: Driving license, Passport, PAN Card, Voter ID, Aadhaar UID, College ID, Employee identification card, or a notarized affidavit with Photo,Signature, Date of Birth and Residential Address. The details of this ID proof have to be given while filling the online application.
3. Numerical Answer Type Questions: The question paper for GATE 2015 will consist of questions of both multiplechoice type and numerical answer type. For multiple choice type questions, candidates have to choose the answer from the given choices. For numerical answer type questions, choices will not be given. Candidates have to enter a number as the answer using a virtual keypad.
WHY GATE?
Cudgeling brains over why to take up as competitive an exam as GATE? Reconsider and reevaluate the following 6 points to know why you should give GATE. a)One of the primary reasons for undertaking GATE is the scholarship that one can secure. Financial assistance during master’s programs and direct doctoral programs in Engineering/Technology/Architecture, and doctoral programs in relevant branches of Science in institutes supported by the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) or other Government agencies is possible only through GATE. In December 2014, the University Grants Commission and Ministry of Human Resources Development headed by Smriti Irani announced that the scholarship for GATEqualified postgraduate students be increased by 55%, from Rs 8000 per month to Rs 12400 per month. b)GATE qualified candidates are eligible for the award of Junior Research Fellowship in Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Laboratories and CSIR sponsored projects India’s largest government funded Research and Development (R&D) organization. c) If you are one of the top rank holders in some GATE papers you are entitled to apply for Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Fellowship awarded by CSIR. And if you seek to apply for the post of a Scientist/Engineer, well, you need GATE qualification. d) Owing to the quality of the exam, and its coveted reputation across India and now worldwide, you can use GATE not only to apply in India but also foreign universities. e) GATE qualification is required for admission to postgraduate institutes. Some institutes also conduct their own screening tests and interviews, in which case a 7030 break up is followed with GATE allotted 70% weightage and the rest to the institute’s scorecard. f) Now comes the most lucrative and attractive reason for not letting go of your prospective GATE Rank employment in leading Public and Private sector undertakings in India. With more than 100,000 students applying for less than 1000 jobs, P&P sector undertakings now have undertaken GATE as screening tool for recruiting engineers at entry level positions.
HOW GATE ?
Once you have made up your mind to take the plunge, let’s make it (sound) easier on how to give GATE from the point of filling the form to finally appearing for the bigDay. Brush up the following points to not miss out on any vital information before appearing for the exam.
a) Application fee has been increased from Rs 1200 to Rs 1500 for general category, OBC male/other candidates, and Rs 750 for all female candidates and SC, ST male/other candidates. No application form is available for sale as the entire process is held online. Log in to the GATE official website (http://gate.iitk.ac.in/GATE2015/) to download the form, for payment of fees via net banking, debit/credit transactions, echallan. Last date for application form for GATE 2015 has passed.
b)Admit cards are available from 17th December 2014 onwards and candidates must note that admit cards are not sent via mail/post. They should be downloaded from the respective zonal GATE website.
c) Candidates can apply for only one of the 22 papers listed in the GATE INFO BROCHURE or GATE website. The duration of exam is 3 hours which contains a total of 65 questions worth a maximum of 100 marks. From 2014 onward, examinations for all the 22 subjects will be conducted online via a ComputerBased Test (CBT). The online examination will contain a mix of multiple choice questions and numerical problems; some questions for which numerical answers must be keyed in by the candidate will be done using the “virtual screen” (i.e. onscreen) . At the end of the 3hour window, the computer automatically closes the screen from further actions.
d) One mark MCQ’s carry a negative marking of 1/3 of marks; two marks MCQ’s carry a negative marking of 2/3 marks; no negative marking for numerical answer type questions.
e) Perplexed by preparation predicaments? Don’t worry, here’s your guide:
*Students preparing for the exam should practice as many previous year papers as possible to brush up and strengthen their weaker areas and basics.
*GATE preparation material works wonders for supplying candidates a comprehensive collection of vast data in one single booklet. Even though one should not reply solely on these, they are good to kickstart your preparation.
* A period constant preparation for 34 months prior to the exam suffices well.
* Notes are your elixir. Make notes to jot down the basic concepts (definitions, unit, dimension etc.) as well as necessary theories, formulae etc to not get caught in the labyrinth of vast syllabus two nights before the exam.
*One month before the examination you should start revising the course as many times as possible. *Time management is central for any competitive exam. Time yourself while taking every single practice paper at home and beat your previous score to secure good rank.
*Do not try to get hold of the entire syllabus prescribed by GATE. A selective preparation would be a very helpful concept and should be learned accurately.
*Rote learning is simply futile; get your basics straight and you are (near to) ready for the exam.
f) GATE online will be held at Forenoon: 09.00 AM to 12.00 Noon, Afternoon: 02.00 PM to 05.00 PM on 31st January, 1st, 7th, 8th and 14th February, 2015.
Where after GATE ?
With due preparation, strategy and practice, and ofcourse a good rank, a GATE score can secure you a seat in the following places:
a) India’s top engineering, technology, science institutes like Indian Institute of Science, National Institutes of Technology, state universities like Bengal Engineering and Science University (recently converted to IIEST), Jadavpur University, Delhi Technological University, Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Andhra University College of Engineering, Osmania University and PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh. b) Foreign universities like the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and technical universities in Germany for their Masters and Ph.D. programs, RWTH Aachen, which is a part of IDEA league and is in collaboration with Imperial College London.
c) GATE rank is your entrypass to coveted companies such as Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd., Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. and Gujarat State Electricity Corporation Ltd.
WHO can give GATE?
Anybody with a:
a) Bachelor’s degree in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture (4 years after 10+2/ PostB.Sc./PostDiploma) and those who are in the final year of such programs.
b) Master’s degree holders in any branch of Science/ Mathematics/ Statistics/ Computer Applications or equivalent and those who are in the final year of such programs.
c) Candidates in the second or higher year of Fouryear integrated Master?s degree programs (PostB.Sc.) in Engineering/ Technology
d) Candidates in the fourth or higher year of fiveyear integrated master’s degree programs or dual degree programs in Engineering/Technology.
e) Candidates with qualifications obtained through examinations conducted by professional societies recognized by UPSC/AICTE (e.g. AMIE by iE(i), AMICE(i) by the institute of Civil Engineers (India)iCE(i)) as equivalent to B.E./B.Tech.
How to Apply :
All candidates have to apply only ONLINE . Details of theapplication fee are shown
The application fee is nonrefundable.
Details of application fee for GATE 2015
Male Candidates (General/OBC)  1500/ 
Women Candidates of any category  750/ 
Other Candidates (General/OBC)  1500/ 
SC / ST / PwD* Category Candidates  750/ 
For GATE 2015 payments would have to be made through online byselecting either using any bank Debit Card/Credit Card, Net Banking orechallan facilities ONLY . Additional charges will be applicableas per the rule of the bank from where the money is being transferred. Table4.5 gives the charges as applicable for State Bank of India (SBI) and Axis Bankwhere the GATE 2015 account is opened and where the money is to be transferred.
An online interface isprovided for your interaction with the GATE Office. With this interface you can
1. Apply for theexamination online.
2. Uploadphotograph, signature and other documents like graduation certificate/certificate from Principal, caste certificate (if applicable) etc.
3. Pay theapplication fee through netbanking.
4. Check the Statusof your application form: Received, Under Scrutiny, Accepted, Defect Status,Status after Rectification, Rejected with Valid Reasons, Admit Card Ready forDownload, etc.
5. Contact theZonal GATE Offices in case of any queries/problems.
6. Download AdmitCard.
7. View youranswers, marks and GATE score.
The login to this interface is through your GOAPS Enrolment ID and aGOAPS password. Keep this information safe and do not disclose it to anyone.
1. GOAPS: GATE Online Application ProcessingSystem (GOAPS website) can be accessed from the website of the respective ZonalGATE Offices or from the website of the GATE 2015 Organizing Institute.
2. Registration: You must first registeryourself, by providing a valid email address, mobile number and a GOAPSpassword. Choose the email id that you check frequently, as all communicationsto you from the GATE Offices will be sent to this address (DO NOT USE ANYBODYELSE’S email ADDRESS. ONLY ONE PERSON CAN REGISTER WITH ONE email ADDRESS).Give your personal mobile number because most of the communications may also besent via SMS.
GOAPS Password: This will be the password thatyou will be providing to the GOAPS during the Enrollment. You must rememberthis along with the GOAPS Enrolment ID to login to GOAPS. Choose a passwordthat cannot be guessed easily (it should not be your name, date of birth, orsome string of numbers or letters like 12345, abcd, etc.), so as to ensure thatthe data you provide is not accessible to any person other than yourself.
3. GOAPS Enrollment ID: Upon registration, anemail containing your GOAPS Enrolment ID will be sent to you. You need toremember this along with the GOAPS password for all GATE 2015 relatedcommunications/website operations.
4. Data Requirement for Application Filling:Beforeyou login to GOAPS using Enrolment ID and Password, keep the followinginformation ready:
a) Personalinformation (name, date of birth, your personal mobile number, parent’s name,parent’s mobile number, etc.).
b) Address forCommunication (including PIN code),
c) Eligibilitydegree details (College address, PIN code of college),
d) GATE paper,choice of GATE examination cities,
e) High qualityimage of your photograph conforming to the requirements specified in
Section 4.4.4.1, along with what type of photograph isaccepted (Section 4.4.4.2).
f) Good qualityimage of your signature conforming to the requirements specified in
Section 4.4.4.3.
g) Scanned copy ofDegree Certificate or Certificate from Principal/HODs in pdf format.
h) Scanned copy ofCategory/PwD Certificate (if applicable) in pdf format.
i) Details of avalid ID Proof that you will carry to the examination hall.
j) Your Netbankinglogin and password to make the application fee payment via online netbankingmode. In case you are making the payment through debit card/credit card havethe following information like debit card/credit card number, password, CVVnumber ready with you.
5. Application Filling: Fill in the necessarydata in the online application form by carefully following instructions giventhere. You may edit the data at this stage if you require. Upload the requiredsoft copy of photo, signature and Certificate from Principal (duly signed andstamped by the Principal). Check the correctness of the photo and yoursignature and documents that are uploaded. If the uploaded soft copy is notcorrect or you are not satisfied with the quality of the soft copy, you mayupload them again.
6. You will have to select the payment option(details given below) while filling the online form.
7. The GOAPS allows you to enter data, “Save”partially filled form, “Logout”, and resume filling in by logging inagain.
8. Before you make the payment, you will beshown a “Preview” of your application, where you have to carefully check forany errors.
9. Once you press “Confirm and Final Submit” button , no further changes to the application can be made by you.
10. For online payment follow the instructions given for payment options.
11. Problems in Login into GOAPS – This step may beused, if the candidate forgets the password or the Enrollment ID or did notreceive the Enrollment ID. Visit the “ Problemsin Login into GOAPS” link on the GOAPS website .
a) In case of forgotten Enrollment ID ornonreceipt of Enrollment ID via email , candidate must provide mobilenumber and the GOAPS Password. The Enrollment ID will be sent to the candidatevia SMS.
b) In case of forgotten password ,candidate must provide Mobile Number and Enrollment ID, which will be verifiedand a new GOAPS password will be sent to the candidate via SMS/email.
c) In case of forgotten Enrollment ID as wellas password or payment has not been made , the candidate must reenroll.If the payment has been made , then the candidate must contact theZonal GATE Office.
EligibilityDocuments
Eligibility criteria and necessary supporting documents can be found from the eligibility table for GATE(Table
Candidates who are in any of the above categories have to upload a valid documentary evidence (Appendix
.
Candidates who mention that they are yet to complete their course, will receive a “Certificate from Principal” section printed on the bottom part of the PDF file. Before you upload this certificate, it is MANDATORY to obtain the signature and seal of the college Principal on this.
The application fee and various payment options are shown
The application fee is nonrefundable . All charges given below are in Indian Rupees.
Application fee and Payment Options
Candidate Category  Mode  Application Fee in * 
Male (General/OBC)  Online Net Banking  1500 
echallan  1500  
Women (All Categories)  Online Net Banking  750 
echallan  750  
Other (General/OBCNCL)  Online Net Banking  1500 
echallan  1500  
SC/ST/PwD  Online Net Banking  750 
echallan  750 
*  Bank charges will be applicable as per the norm.
Online Netbanking Payment Details
1. From the GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS), you will be redirected to the website of the bank of your choice.
2. You will have tologin with your bank’s Netbanking (or Internet Banking) user ID and password.
3. The fee amount and bank charges will be shown to you, and you have to confirm that the payment is for GATE 2015.
4. Once you confirm and the payment is successful, you will be redirected back to the GATE Online Application Website.
5. If you have some difficulty (due to internet connection or power failure), and you are not sure whether your payment has been processed or not, then please login back to GOAPS and check the status of the payment. You can also check the status from yourbank.
6. In case the feeamount has been debited from your bank account/debit card/credit card, however,GOAPS does not acknowledge any fee payment, then the money will be creditedback to your account/debit card/credit card within three working days.
7. In such a case,you may initiate a fresh payment using GOAPS, even without waiting for the money to be credited back to your account/debit card/credit card, so that your application is on time.
1. At the secure payment site choose the method of payment which is Net Banking/e challan.
2. Login with your Net Banking/SBI/Axis Bank “User Name” and “Password”.
3. Follow the instruction as shown and fill in the details and make the payment. The details of the process of how to fill through Net Banking/echallan may be seen at http://gate.iitk.ac.in/ .
4. Once the payment is successful a “Fee Payment Number” will be generated which is unique and MUST be saved by the candidate as it will be used in the later stages when he/she fills up the GATE 2015 Application form.
5. After successful payment of the Application Fees the candidate will be required to fill in his/her details (as given in Section 4.4.2) to complete the GATE 2015 Application process.
6. It is essential that the candidate fills in the details without any error as the application is liable to be rejected if there is any error . As a checklist the candidate MUST verify that he/she has filled in and uploaded the following as required
a) Personal information(name, date of birth, your personal mobile number, parent’s name, parent’s mobile number etc.).
b) Address for Communication (including PIN code).
c) Eligibility degree details (College address, PIN code of college).
d) The signed application form (with photograph affixed) with Principal’s certificate, if that is the proof of your eligibility to appear in GATE 2015 OR Other eligibility documents required to appear in GATE 2015 (e.g., degree certificate).
e) High quality image of your photograph conforming to the requirements specified in Section 4.4.4.1,along with what type of photograph is accepted
f) Category certificate ONLY for claiming discounted application fee.
g) Good quality image of your signature conforming to the requirements specified
h) Details of a validID Proof that you will carry to the examination hall.
i) Fee payment number .
Note: Before submitting the GATE 2015 Application please ensure that all the details and all the necessary supporting documents are filled/uploaded and there is NO ERROR.Application once submitted CANNOT be changed/rectified. The current status of your application will be updated after the receipt and scrutiny of your application by the respective zonal GATE Office. This status can be checked anytime by logging into GOAPS .
The GATE 2015 Online Application Processing System requires that your photograph and signature be uploaded electronically at the time of submitting your application. Uploading photograph or signature that does not meet the specifications can result in the disqualification of the application without any refund of the application fee.
Please pay attention to upload good quality photograph. Poor quality of the photograph submitted will lead to rejection of your GATE application, without any refund of the application fee. The GATE score card will be printed with the photograph you submit.
1. The photographmust be in color and must be taken in a professional studio. Photograph taken using a mobile phone and other selfcomposed portraits are NOT acceptable.
2. The photograph must be taken in a white or a very light background.
3. The photograph must have been taken after 1 ^{st }July 2014.
4. In the photograph, the face should occupy about 50% of the area, and with a fullface view looking into the camera directly.
5. The main features of the face must not be covered by hair of the head, any cloth or any shadow. Forehead, eyes, nose and chin should be clearly visible.
6. If you normally wear spectacles, glare on glasses is not acceptable in your photo. Glare can beavoided with a slight downward tilt of the glasses or by removing the glassesfor the photo shoot.
7. You must not wear spectacles with dark or tinted glasses, only clear glasses are permitted.
8. Ask your photo studio to provide the image in a JPEG format and also on a standard 3.5 cm ×4.5 cm (Width x Height) print.
9. Maximum pixelresolution for JPEG: 480 × 640 (0.3 Mega pixel) (Ask your studio to reduce itto this resolution if it is higher).
10. Minimum pixel resolution for JPEG: 240 × 320.
11. For your own benefit it may be prudent not to intentionally change your facial features or hair style as in the photograph until the day of the exam.
1. Please draw a rectangular box of size 2 cm × 7 cm (Height x Width) on an A4 white paper. Put your signature with black or dark blue ink pen within this box.
2. Get the signature digitally image scanned by a professional using a scanner, and get the image cropped to the box by the professional.
3. Only JPEG image formats will be accepted.
4. The maximum pixel resolution for the image is 160 × 560.
5. The minimum pixel resolution for the image is 80 × 280.
6. Photographs of the signatures taken using mobile phone are not acceptable, and can result in disqualification of the application without any refund of the fee.
Admit Card :
The Admit Card can only be downloaded from the zonal GATE websites tentatively from 17 ^{th }December 2014. Admit Cards will NOT be sent by post/email. Bring a printout of the downloaded Admit Card to the Test Center along with the original and valid photo identification(NO photocopy / scanned copy/NOT expired). Please note that you have to give details of this ID proof while filling the online application. Candidates will NOT be permitted to take the test, if this original and valid photo identification is not presented. It may be noted that you would have specified one of the following IDs during the online application process: Driving License, Passport, PAN Card, Voter ID, Aadhaar UID, College ID, Employee Identification Card, or a Notarized Affidavit with Photo, Signature, Date of Birth and Residential Address.
Qualifying Degree  Qualifying Degree/Examination (Descriptive)  Description of Eligible Candidates  Year of qualification cannot be later than  Copies of Certificates to be submitted  
Passed or earlier  Expected to complete later  
B.E./ B.Tech./ B.Arch./ B.Pharm.  Bachelor’s degree in Engineering/Technology/ Architecture/Pharmacy (Post Diploma/Post B.Sc./ 4 years after 10+2)  Currently in the 4 ^{th }year or already completed  2015  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion Certificate  Certificate from Principal 
B.Sc. (Research)/ B.S.
 Bachelor’s degree in Science (PostDiploma/ 4 years after 10+2)  Currently in the 4 ^{th }year or already completed  2015  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion Certificate  Certificate from Principal 
M. Sc./ M.A./ MCA or equivalent  Master’s degree in any branch of Science/Mathematics / Statistics / Computer  Currently in the final year or already  2015  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course  Certificate from Principal 
 Applications or equivalent  completed 
 Completion Certificate (pertaining to Master’s degree) 

Int. M.E/ M.Tech (PostB.Sc.)  PostBSc Integrated Master’s degree programs in Engineering / Technology (Four year program)  Currently in the 2 nd /3rd /4 th year or already completed  2017  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion Certificate  Certificate from Principal 
Int. M.E./ M.Tech or Dual Degree(after Diploma or 10+2)  Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering / Technology (Five year program)  Currently in the 4 ^{th }/5 ^{th } year or already completed  2016  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion Certificate  Certificate from Principal 
Int. M.Sc/ Int. B.S.M.S.  Integrated M.Sc. or Five year integrated B.S.M.S. program  Currently in the final year or already completed  2015  Degree Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion Certificate  Certificate from Principal 
Professional Society Examinations (equivalent to B.E./B.Tech./ B.Arch.)  B.E./B.Tech./B.Arch. equivalent examinations, of Professional Societies, recognized by MHRD/UPSC/AICTE (e.g., AMIE by Institution of EngineersIndia, AMICE by the Institute of Civil EngineersIndia)  Completed section A or equivalent of such professional courses  NA  Professional Certificate /Provisional Certificate/Course Completion/ Membership Certificate issued by the Society or Institute  Copy of Marksheet for Section “A” 
Candidates who have tosubmit a certificate from their college Principal, as determined from Table4.1, have to obtain one from his/her institution beforehand and upload the sameduring the online submission of the application form.
Candidates, who have appeared in the final semester/year exam in 2014, but with a backlog(arrears/failed subjects) in any of the papers in their qualifying degree should
1. upload a copy of any one of the mark sheets of the final year,
OR
2. Have to obtain a declaration from their Principal along with the signature and seal beforehand and upload the same during the online submission of the application form.
Structure of GATE 2015 :
For the GATE 2015examination, a candidate can apply for only one of the 22 papers listed inTable 5.1. The syllabus for each of the papers is given separately. Making achoice of the appropriate paper during GATE application is the responsibilityof the candidate. Some guidelines in this respect are suggested below.
The candidate is expected toappear in a paper appropriate to the discipline of his/her qualifying degree.However, the candidate is, free to choose any paper according to his/heradmission plan, keeping in mind the eligibility criteria of the institutions inwhich he/she wishes to seek admission. For more details regarding the admission criteria in any particular institute, the candidate is advised to refer to the websites of that institute.
List of GATE Papers andCorresponding Codes




*XE (Engineering Sciences)and **XL (Life Sciences) papers are of general nature and will comprise ofSections listed in the above table. More detailed explanation is given below.
All the papers will have fewquestions that test the General Aptitude (Language and Analytical Skills),apart from the core subject of the paper.
Acandidate appearing in the XE paper has to answer the following
1. Section A –Engineering Mathematics
2. GA – GeneralAptitude
3. Any two of XEsections B to G
The choice of two sectionsfrom B to G can be made during the examination after viewing the questions.Only two optional sections can be answered at a time. A candidate wishing tochange midway of the examination to another optional section must first chooseto deselect one of the previously chosen optional sections (B to G).
A candidate appearing in theXL paper has to answer the following
1. Section H –Chemistry
2. GA – GeneralAptitude
3. Any two of XLsections I to M
The choice of two sectionsfrom I to M can be made during the examination after viewing the questions.Only two optional sections can be answered at a time. A candidate wishing tochange midway of the examination to another optional section must first chooseto deselect one of the previously chosen optional sections (I to M).
Ø 5.2Duration and Examination Type
The GATE examinationconsists of a single paper of 3hour durationthat contains 65 questions carryinga maximum of 100 marks . The questionpaper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answertype questions. The pattern of question papers is discussed in Section 5.3.
The examination for all the papers will be carried out in an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT) mode where the candidates will be shown the questions in a random sequence on a computer screen. The candidates are required to either select the answer (for MCQ type)or enter the answer for numerical answer type question using a mouse on a virtual keyboard (keyboard of the computer will be disabled). Candidates will be provided with scribble pad for rough work and these have to be returned back after the examination. At the end of the 3hour window, the computer will automatically close the screen from further actions.
In all the papers, therewill be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questionscarrying a total of 15 marks are in General Aptitude (GA).
In the papers bearing thecodes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI, TF and XE, theEngineering Mathematics will carry around 15%of the total marks , the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 70% of the total marks isdevoted to the subject of the paper.
In the papers bearing thecodes AR, CY, EY, GG, MA, PH and XL, the General Aptitude section will carry 15% of the total marks and the remaining 85% of the total marks isdevoted to the subject of the paper.
GATE 2015 would containquestions of two different types in various papers:
(i) MultipleChoice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections.These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of fouranswers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).
(ii) NumericalAnswer Questions of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. Forthese questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidateusing the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.
Design of Questions
The questions in a paper maybe designed to test the following abilities:
(i) Recall : These arebased on facts, principles, formulae or laws of the discipline of the paper.The candidate is expected to be able to obtain the answer either from his/hermemory of the subject or at most from a oneline computation.
Q. During machining, maximumheat is produced
(A) in flankface
(B) in rakeface
(C) in shearzone
(D) due tofriction between chip and tool
(ii) Comprehension : Thesequestions will test the candidate’s understanding of the basics of his/herfield, by requiring him/her to draw simple conclusions from fundamental ideas.
Q. A DC motor requires astarter in order to
(A) develop astarting torque
(B) compensatefor auxiliary field ampere turns
(C) limitarmature current at starting
(D) provideregenerative braking
(iii) Application : In thesequestions, the candidate is expected to apply his/her knowledge either throughcomputation or by logical reasoning.
Q. The sequent depth ratioof a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48. The Froude number at thebeginning of the jump is:
(A)5.0 (B)8.0 (C)10.0 (D) 12.0
Examples of each of thisdesign are given in the types of questions above.
The questions based on theabove logics may be a mix of single standalone statement/phrase/data typequestions, combination of option codes type questions or match items typequestions.
(iv) Analysisand Synthesis : In these questions, the candidate is presented withdata, diagrams, images etc. that require analysis before a question can beanswered. A Synthesis question mightrequire the candidate to compare two or more pieces of information. Questionsin this category could, for example, involve candidates in recognizing unstatedassumptions, or separating useful information from irrelevant information.
Marking Scheme :
For 1mark multiplechoice questions, 1/3 marks will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2markmultiplechoice questions, 2/3 marks will be deducted for a wronganswer. There is NO negative marking fornumerical answer type questions . 5.4.1 General Aptitude (GA) Questions
In all papers, GA questionscarry a total of 15 marks . The GAsection includes 5 questions carrying 1mark each (subtotal 5 marks ) and 5questions carrying 2marks each(subtotal 10 marks ).
These papers would contain 25 questions carrying 1mark each (subtotal 25 marks ) and 30 questions carrying 2marks each (subtotal 60 marks ). Thequestion paper will consist of questions of multiple choice and numericalanswer type. For numerical answer questions, choices will not be given.Candidates have to enter the answer (which will be a real number, signed orunsigned, e.g., 25.06, 25.06, 25, 25 etc.) using a virtual keypad. Anappropriate range will be considered while evaluating the numerical answer typequestions so that the candidate is not penalized due to the usual roundofferrors.
Apart from the GeneralAptitude (GA) section, the GG question paper consists of two parts: Part A andPart B. Part A is common for all candidates. Part B contains two sections:Section 1 (Geology) and Section 2 (Geophysics). Candidates will have toattempt questions in Part A and either Section 1 or Section 2 in Part B.
Part A consists of 25 multiplechoice questions carrying 1mark each (subtotal 25 marks and some of these may benumerical answer type questions). Each section in Part B (Section 1 and Section2) consists of 30multiple choicequestions carrying 2marks each(subtotal 60 marks and some ofthese may be numerical answer type questions).
In XE paper, EngineeringMathematics section (Section A) is compulsory .This section contains 11questionscarrying a total of 15 marks : 7questions carrying 1mark each(subtotal 7 marks ), and 4 questionscarrying 2marks each (subtotal 8 marks ). Some questions may be ofnumerical answer type questions.
Each of the other sectionsof the XE paper (Sections B through G) contains 22 questions carrying a totalof 35 marks : 9 questions carrying 1mark each (subtotal 9 marks ) and 13 questions carrying 2marks each (subtotal 26 marks ). Some questions may be ofnumerical answer type.
In XL paper, Chemistrysection (Section H) is compulsory .This section contains 15 questionscarrying a total of 25 marks : 5questions carrying 1mark each(subtotal 5 marks ) and 10 questionscarrying 2marks each (subtotal 20 marks ). Some questions may be ofnumerical answer type.
Each of the other sectionsof the XL paper (Sections I through M) contains 20 questions carrying a totalof 30 marks : 10 questions carrying 1mark each (subtotal 10 marks ) and 10 questions carrying 2marks each (subtotal 20 marks ). Some questions may be ofnumerical answer type.
For a wrong answer chosenfor the multiple choice questions (MCQs), there would be negative marking. For 1mark multiple choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2markmultiple choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wronganswer. However, there is NO negativemarking for a wrong answer in numerical answer type questions .
1. Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies,word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
2. Numerical Ability: Numericalcomputation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.
VerbalAbility
Q.1. Choose the appropriate answer to complete the followingsentence:
After several _____________attempts to send the missile into space, the spacecraft were finally launchedsuccessfully.
(A)abortive (B) difficult (C)experimental (D)preliminary
Ans. (A)
Q.2. Choose the appropriate answer to complete the followingsentence:
Medicine is to illness aslaw is to _____________.
(A)discipline (B) anarchy (C)treason (D)etiquette
Ans. (B)
Q.3 . Read the following paragraph:
“The ordinary form ofmercury thermometer is used for temperature ranging from –40 ^{o }F to500 ^{o }F. For measuring temperature below –40 ^{o }F,thermometers filled with alcohol are used. These are, however, not satisfactoryfor use in high temperatures. When a mercury thermometer is used fortemperature above 500 ^{o }F, the space above the mercury is filled withsome inert gas, usually nitrogen or carbon dioxide, placed in the thermometerunder pressure. As the mercury rises, the gas pressures is increased, so thatit is possible to use these thermometers for temperatures as high as 1000 ^{o }F.”
With what, besides mercury,would a thermometer be filled if it was designed to be used for measuringtemperature of about 500 ^{o }F?
(A)Pyrometer (B) Inert gas (C)Iron and brass (D)Gas
Ans. (B)
Q.4. The cost of manufacturing tractors in Korea is twenty percentless than the cost of manufacturing tractors in Germany. Even after transportation fees and import taxes are added, it is still cheaper to import tractors from Korea to Germany than to produce tractors in Germany.
Which of the followingassertions is best supported by the above information?
(A) Labourcosts in Korea are twenty percent below those in Germany.
(B) Importingtractors into Germany will eliminate twenty percent of the manufacturing jobsin Germany.
(C) The costsof transporting a tractor from Korea to Germany are more than twenty percent ofthe cost of manufacturing the tractor in Korea.
(D) The importtaxes on a tractor imported from Korea to Germany is less than twenty percentof the cost of manufacturing the tractor in Germany.
Ans. (D)
NumericalAbility
Q.5. In a survey, 3/16 of the people surveyed told that theypreferred to use public transport while commuting daily to office. 5/8 of thepeople surveyed told that they preferred to use their own vehicles. Theremaining 75 respondents said that they had no clear preference. How manypeople preferred to use public transport?
(A) 75 (B)100 (C)125 (D)133
Ans. (A)
Aerospace Engineering (AE) Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems oflinear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit,continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definiteand improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima andminima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directionalderivatives, line, surface and volume integrals. Theorems of Stokes, Gauss andGreen.
Differential Equations: First order linear andnonlinear equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients,Cauchy and Euler equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplacetransforms. Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods.
Numerical methods: Numerical solution oflinear and nonlinear algebraic equations, integration by trapezoidal andSimpson rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere.Classification of aircraft.Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration andvarious parts.
Airplane performance: Pressure altitude;equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; Primary flight instruments:Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turnbank indicator. Drag polar; takeoff and landing;steady climb & descent,absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb,endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, Vn diagram; Winds: head,tail & cross winds.
Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip;roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed & free stability,horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tailposition and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position;hinge moments, stick forces.
Dynamic stability: Euler angles; Equations ofmotion; aerodynamic forces and moments, stability & control derivatives;decoupling of longitudinal and latdirectional dynamics; longitudinal modes;lateraldirectional modes.
Central force motion, determination of trajectory andorbital period in simple cases.Orbit transfer, inplane andoutofplane.Elements of rocket motor performance.
Basic Fluid Mechanics: Incompressibleirrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem, singularities andsuperposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.
Airfoils and wings: Classification ofairfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift devices, KuttaJoukowskitheorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory; induced drag;qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.
Viscous Flows: Flow separation, introductionto turbulence, transition, structure of a turbulent boundary layer.
Compressible Flows: Dynamics andThermodynamics of ID flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock,PrandtlMeyer flow, flow in nozzles and diffusers, inviscid flow in a cdnozzle, flow in diffusers. subsonic and supersonic airfoils, compressibilityeffects on lift and drag, critical and drag divergence Mach number, wave drag.
Wind Tunnel Testing: Measurement andvisualization techniques.
Stress and Strain: Equations of equilibrium,constitutive law, straindisplacement relationship, compatibility equations,plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function.
Flight Vehicle Structures: Characteristics ofaircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending and flexural shear.Flexural shear flow in thinwalled sections. Buckling. Failure theories. Loadson aircraft.
Structural Dynamics: Free and forced vibrationof discrete systems. Damping and resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.
Thermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines thrust andthrust augmentation.
Turbo machinery: Axial compressors andturbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors.
Aerothermodynamics of nonrotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle. Thermodynamics of ramjets andscramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.
Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants,Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity anddifferentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences andseries; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl;Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinearfirst order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’sand Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs Laplace, heat and waveequations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, modeand standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomialdistributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear andnonlinear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule;single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Sources of power on the farmhuman, animal, mechanical,electrical, wind, solar and biomass; biofuels; design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, torque, speed,displacement and acceleration on machine elements.
Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitchsystems and hitching of tillage implements; mechanics of animal traction;functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation ofmanual, animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting,fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting,harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery andequipment; calculation of performance parameters field capacity, efficiency,application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors
Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. enginecycles; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and theirproperties; I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition,electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation, maintenance and repair ofI.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque,fuel consumption, heat load and power losses.
Tractors and power tillers – type, selection, maintenanceand repair; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – geartrains, differential, final drives and power takeoff; mechanics of tractorchassis; traction theory; three point hitches free link and restrained linkoperations; mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors;human engineering and safety in tractor design; tractor tests and performance.
Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostaticpressure and its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface;continuity equation; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes,Darcy Weisbach and HazenWilliams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow throughorifices and notches; flow in open channels.
Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definition sand relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes.
Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and theirmeasurement, analysis of precipitation data; abstraction from precipitation;runoff; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; streamflow measurement; flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.
Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methodsof traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; typesof leveling; contouring; instruments for surveying and leveling; computation ofearth work.
Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind andwater erosion; factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological andengineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways;gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams;water harvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management.
Soilwaterplant relationship, water requirement of crops;consumptive use and evapotranspiration; irrigation scheduling; irrigationefficiencies; design of irrigation channels; measurement of soil moisture,irrigation water and infiltration; surface, sprinkler and drip methods ofirrigation; design and evaluation of irrigation methods.
Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout ofsurface and subsurface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinitycontrol; irrigation and drainage water quality.
Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers,evaluation of aquifer properties; well hydraulics; groundwater recharge.
Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pumpselection and installation.
Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; condensation and boiling heat transfer; working principles of heat exchangers ; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processing operations.
Material and energy balances in food processing systems;water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases; kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing;refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications; psychrometry –properties of airvapors mixture; concentration and drying of liquid foods –evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers.
Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction ofgranular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separationby screening; fluidization of granular solidspneumatic, bucket, screw and beltconveying; cleaning and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners.
Hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling of cereals,pulses and oilseeds; Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables;Byproduct utilization from processing industries.
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable food storage, go downs, bins and grain silos.
Architecture and Planning (AR)
City planning: Evolution ofcities; principles of city planning; types of cities & new towns; planningregulations and building byelaws; ecocity concept; sustainable development.
Housing : Concept of housing; neighborhood concept; siteplanning principles; housing typology; housing standards; housinginfrastructure; housing policies, finance and management; housing programs inIndia; selfhelp housing.
Landscape Design : Principles of landscape design and siteplanning; history of landscape styles; landscape elements and materials; plantcharacteristics & planting design; environmental considerations inlandscape planning.
Computer Aided Design : Application of computers in architecture andplanning; understanding elements of hardware and software; computer graphics;programming languages – C and Visual Basic and usage of packages such asAutoCAD, 3DStudio, 3D Max.
Environmental Studies in Building Science : Components of Ecosystem; ecological principlesconcerning environment; climate responsive design; energy efficient buildingdesign; thermal comfort; solar architecture; principles of lighting and stylesfor illumination; basic principles of architectural acoustics; environmentpollution, their control & abatement.
Visual and Urban Design : Principles of visual composition; proportion,scale, rhythm, symmetry, harmony, datum, balance, form, colour, texture; senseof place and space, division of space; barrier free design; focal point, vista,image ability, visual survey, figurebackground relationship.
History of Architecture : Indian – Indus valley, Vedic, Buddhist, IndoAryan, Dravidian and Mughal periods; European – Egyptian, Greek, Roman,medieval and renaissance periods construction and architectural styles;vernacular and traditional architecture.
Development of Contemporary Architecture : Architectural developments and impacts onsociety since industrial revolution; influence of modern art on architecture;works of national and international architects; art novuea, eclecticism,international styles, post modernism, deconstruction in architecture.
Building Services : Water supply, sewerage and drainage systems;sanitary fittings and fixtures; plumbing systems, principles of internal &external drainage systems, principles of electrification of buildings,intelligent buildings; elevators & escalators, their standards and uses;airconditioning systems; fire fighting systems, building safety and securitysystems.
Building Construction and Management : Building construction techniques, methods anddetails; building systems and prefabrication of building elements; principlesof modular coordination; estimation, specification, valuation, professional practice; project management techniques e.g., PERT, CPM etc;
Materials and Structural Systems : Behavioral characteristics of all types ofbuilding materials e.g. mud, timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass,FRP, different polymers, composites; principles of strength of materials;design of structural elements in wood, steel and RCC; elastic and limit statedesign; complex structural systems; principles of prestressing; tall buildings;principles of disaster resistant structures.
Planning Theory : Regional planning; settlement system planning;history of human settlements; growth of cities & metropolises; principlesof Ekistics; ruralurban migration; urban conservation; urban renewal;Fiveyear plan; structural and sectoral plan.
Techniques of Planning : Planning survey techniques; preparation of urbanand regional structure plans, development plans, action plans; site planningprinciples and design; statistical methods of data analysis; application ofG.I.S and remote sensing techniques in urban and regional planning; decisionmaking models.
Traffic and Transportation Planning : Principles of traffic engineering andtransportation planning; traffic survey methods; design of roads,intersections, grade separators and parking areas; hierarchy of roads andlevels of services; traffic and transport management in urban areas,intelligent transportation system; mass transportation planning; paratransitsand other modes of transportation, pedestrian & slow moving trafficplanning.
Infrastructure, Services and Amenities : Principles of water supply and sanitationsystems; water treatment; solid waste disposal systems; waste treatment,recycle & reuse; urban rainwater harvesting; power supply and communicationsystems — network, design & guidelines; demography related standards atvarious levels of the settlements for health, education, recreation, religious& publicsemi public facilities.
Development Administration and Management : Planning laws; development control and zoningregulations; laws relating to land acquisition; development enforcements, urbanland ceiling; land management techniques; planning and municipaladministration; disaster mitigation management; 73 ^{rd }& 74 ^{th }Constitutional amendments; valuation & taxation; revenue resources andfiscal management; public participation and role of NGO & CBO; Institutionalnetworking & capacity building.
GATE Score :
After the evaluation of the answers, the raw marks obtained by a candidate will be converted to a normalized GATE Score.
From 2013 onwards, the GATE score of a candidate is being computed using the formula given below.
Calculation of Normalized Marks for CE, CS, EC, EE and ME papers (multisession papers)
In 2015, examination for CE, CS, EC, EE and ME papers will be conducted in multisessions. Hence, for these papers, a suitable normalization is applied to take into account any variation in the difficulty levels of the question papers across different sessions. The normalization is done based on the fundamental assumption that "in all multisession GATE papers, the distribution of abilities of candidates is the same across all the sessions". This assumption is justified since the number of candidates appearing in multi session papers in GATE 2015 is large and the procedure of allocation of session to candidates is random. Further it is also ensured that for the same multisession paper, the number of candidates allotted in each session is of the same order of magnitude.
Based on the above, and considering various normalization methods, the committee arrived at the following formula for calculating the normalized marks, for CE,CS, EC, EE and ME papers.
Normalization mark of 𝑗 ^{𝑡ℎ }candidate in the 𝑖 ^{𝑡ℎ }session 𝑀 _{𝑖𝑗 }is given by
𝑀 𝑖𝑗 = 𝑀 𝑀 𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑔 −−𝑀𝑀 𝑖𝑞𝑞𝑔 𝑀 𝑖𝑗 −𝑀 𝑖𝑞 + 𝑀 𝑞𝑔
where
𝑀 _{𝑖𝑗 }:is the actual marks obtained by the 𝑗 ^{𝑡ℎ }candidate in 𝑖 ^{𝑡ℎ }session
𝑀 _{𝑡 }^{𝑔 }:is the average marks of the top 0.1% of the candidates considering all sessions
𝑀 _{𝑞 }^{𝑔 }:is the sum of mean and standard deviation marks of the candidates in the paper considering all sessions
𝑀 _{𝑡𝑖 }:is the average marks of the top 0.1% of the candidates in the 𝑖 ^{𝑡ℎ }session
𝑀 _{𝑖𝑞 }:is the sum of the mean marks and standard deviation of the 𝑖 ^{𝑡ℎ }session
After the evaluation of the answers, normalized marks based on the above formula will be calculated corresponding to the raw marks obtained by a candidate for CE,CS, EC, EE and ME papers and the GATE 2015 Score will be calculated based on the normalized marks.
For all other papers, actual marks obtained will be used for calculating the GATE Score.
Calculation of GATE Score for all papers
GATE 2015 score will be calculated using the formula
𝑀 −𝑀 _{𝑞}
𝐺𝐴𝑇𝐸𝑆𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 𝑆 _{𝑞 }+𝑆 _{𝑡 }−𝑆 _{𝑞 }𝑀 _{𝑡 }− 𝑀 _{𝑞}
In the above formulae
𝑀 : marks obtained by the candidate (actual marks for single session papers and normalized marks for multisession papers)
𝑀 _{𝑞 }:is the qualifying marks for general category candidate in the paper
𝑀 _{𝑡 }:is the mean of marks of top 0.1% or top 10 (whichever is larger) of the candidates who appeared in the paper (in case of multisession papers including all sessions)
𝑆 _{𝑞 }:350, is the score assigned to 𝑀 _{𝑞}
𝑆 _{𝑡 }:900, is the score assigned to 𝑀 _{𝑡}
In the GATE 2015 score formula, 𝑀 _{𝑞 }is usually 25 marks (out of 100) or +𝜎 , whichever is larger. Here 𝜇 is the mean and 𝜎 is the standard deviation of marks of all the candidates who appeared in the paper.
After the declaration of the results, GATE Scorecards can be downloaded by (a) All SC/ST/PwD candidates whose marks are greater than or equal to the qualifying mark of SC/ST/PwD candidates in their respective papers, and (b) All other candidates whose marks are greater than or equal to the qualifying mark of OBC (NCL) candidates in their respective papers. There is no provision for the issue of hard copies of the GATE Scorecards .
The GATE 2015 Committee has the authority to decide the qualifying mark/score for each GATE paper. In case any claim or dispute arises in respect of GATE 2015,it is hereby made absolutely clear that the Courts and Tribunals in Allahabad and Allahabad alone shall have the exclusive jurisdiction to entertain and settle any such dispute or claim.
GATE 2015 Results
GATE 2015 results will be announced on March 12, 2015 at 17:00 hrs and will be available on the GATE Online Application Website.
GATE 2015 score is valid for THREE YEARS from the date of announcement of the results.
GATE 2015 results may be made available on payment basis to Government organizations (educational institutions, R & D laboratories, industries, etc.) in India and abroad based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between IIT Kanpur and the organization intending to use the GATE score. Details in this regard can be obtained from The Organising Chairman, GATE 2015, IIT Kanpur.
GATE 2015 Score Card
After the declaration of the results, candidates can download their GATE 2015 Score Card for the paper (for which he/she has taken the examination). Downloadable score cards will be available to only those candidates whose marks are equal to or above the qualifying marks of SC/ST/PwD candidates in that paper. The GATE 2015 scorecards can be downloaded and for that the candidate should access the zonal websites from where he/she has taken the GATE examination.
In case any candidate requires the soft copy of his/her GATE Score Card after May 29, 2015 till December 31, 2015, then they can do so by sending a demand draft of 500 (five hundred only) in the name of Chairman GATE , payable at Kanpur and send to GATE Office, IIT Kanpur.
Linear Algebra : Matricesand determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit,continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima,Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
Differential Equations : Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constantcoefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE Laplace,heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation andregression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration oftrapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differentialequations.
Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellstructure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism(aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation;Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids,transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity andcharacteristic features; Viruses.
Biochemistry : Biomoleculesand their conformation; Weak intermolecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of singlesubstrate and bisubstrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics;Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transportand pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signaltransduction.
Molecular Biology and Genetics : Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes;DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translationalprocesses; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelianinheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Populationgenetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases andapplications.
Process Biotechnology : Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass andprimary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, aminoacids, exopolysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production,purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Productionand purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic andmembrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells andtheir application for bioconversion processes.
Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes forstabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.
Bioprocess Engineering : Kinetics ofmicrobial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simplestructured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fedbatch andcontinuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors;Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scaleup concepts; Design of fermentationmedia; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation inbioreactors.
Plant and Animal Biotechnology : Special features and organization of plant cells; Tot potency;Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistryof major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth;Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development:methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrientoptimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures;Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.
Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism,regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cellcultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shearforce; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macrocarrier culture;Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Geneticengineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.
Immunology : The origin ofimmunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary andsecondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibodyand secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonalantibody; Complement; Antigenantibody reaction; Regulation of immune response;Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Recombinant DNA Technology : Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and otherviral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA andgenomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene;Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chainreactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; Insituhybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Sitedirected mutagenesis; Gene transfertechnologies; Gene therapy.
Bioinformatics : Major bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases;Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields).
Mathematical Logic : Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.
Probability : Conditional Probability; Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation; Random Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal,exponential, Poisson, Binomial.
Set Theory & Algebra : Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattice;Boolean Algebra.
Combinatory : Permutations; Combinations; Counting;Summation; generating functions; recurrence relations; asymptotics.
Graph Theory : Connectivity; spanning trees;Cut vertices & edges; covering; matching; independent sets; Colouring;Planarity; Isomorphism.
Linear Algebra : Algebra of matrices,determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Numerical Methods : LU decomposition for systemsof linear equations; numerical solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations bySecant, Bisection and NewtonRaphson Methods; Numerical integration bytrapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.
Calculus : Limit, Continuity & differentiability,Mean value Theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite& improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivatives, maxima &minima.
Digital Logic: Logic functions, Minimization,Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits; Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).
Computer Organization and Architecture: Machineinstructions and addressing modes, ALU and datapath, CPU control design, Memoryinterface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining,Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.
Programming and Data Structures: Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding; Abstract datatypes, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps
Algorithms: Analysis, Asymptotic notation,Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and average case analysis; Design:Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divideand conquer; Tree and graph traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest paths; Hashing,Sorting, Searching. Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of time and space, upper and lower bounds, Basic concepts of complexity classes – P,NP, NPhard, NP complete.
Theory of Computation: Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Pushdown automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines,
Undecidability.
Compiler Design: Lexical analysis, Parsing,Syntax directed translation, Run time environments, Intermediate and target code generation, Basics of code optimization.
Operating System: Processes, Threads,Interprocess communication, Concurrency, Synchronization, Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O systems,Protection and security.
Databases: ERmodel, Relational model(relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity constraints,normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files,indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control.
Information Systems and Software Engineering : information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design, coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.
Computer Networks: ISO/OSIstack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error controltechniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets,IP(v4), Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basicconcepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers. Network security – basicconcepts of public key and private key cryptography, digital signature,firewalls.
Web technologies : HTML, XML, basic concepts of clientserver computing.
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems oflinear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient,Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations(linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Analytic functions,Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Mechanics : Bendingmoment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress andstrain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses,stress transformation, Mohr’s circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shearstresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels,uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis : Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames,displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods ofstructural analysis.
Concrete Structures : ConcreteTechnology properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete designbasic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete,analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures : Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam columns, column bases. Connections simple and eccentric, beam–column connections, plate girders and trusses.Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
Soil Mechanics : Origin of soils, soil classification, threephase system, fundamental definitions,relationship and interrelationships, permeability &seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.
Foundation Engineering : Subsurface investigations scope, drilling bore holes, sampling,penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopesinfinite slopes, finite slopes.Foundation typesfoundation design requirements. Shallow foundationsbearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution,settlement analysis in sands & clays . Deep foundations–pile types, dynamic&static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands & clays , negative skin friction.
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics : Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow,applications of momentum and Bernoulli’s equation, laminar and turbulent flow,flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth.Uniformflow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energyconcept, hydraulic jump.Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements inchannels, tanks and pipes.Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling.Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps andturbines.
Hydrology : Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity,reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.
Irrigation : Duty, delta,estimation of evapotranspiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: linedand unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Designof weirs on permeable foundation.Types of irrigation system, irrigationmethods.Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.
Water requirements : Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of waste water. Primary,secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluentdischarge standards. Domestic waste water treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic waste water, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic waste water, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution : Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes : Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution : Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.
Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.
Traffic Engineering : Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design,traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.
Importance of surveying, principles and classifications,mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.
Linear Algebra : Matrix algebra, Systems oflinear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.
Calculus : Functions of single variable, Limit,continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations : First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables : Analytic functions, Cauchy’sintegral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, Residue theorem.
Probability and Statistics : Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods : Numerical solutions of linearand nonlinear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’srule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Linear Algebra : MatrixAlgebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus : Meanvalue theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite andimproper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals,Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface andVolume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations : First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order lineardifferential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation ofparameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary valueproblems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables : Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics : Sampling theorems, Conditional probability,Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete andcontinuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlationand regression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistepmethods for differential equations.
Transform Theory : Fouriertransform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associatedwith graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices.Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition,Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation. Steadystate sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differentialequations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of networkequations usingLaplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits.2port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. Stateequations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon,intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusioncurrent, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombinationof carriers.pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOScapacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs.Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation,diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOSprocess.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalentcircuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits,clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FETamplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational,feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple opampcircuits.Filters.Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation;singletransistor and opamp configurations.Function generators andwaveshaping circuits, 555 Timers.Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimizationof Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS,CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters,multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches andflipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs.Semiconductor memories.Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memoryand I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and propertiesofLaplace transform, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series,continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform.Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions andproperties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles andzeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phasedelay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control systemcomponents; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Openloop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of thesesystems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions ofsystems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems andfrequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: rootloci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control systemcompensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements ofProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representationand solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise:probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation,power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and anglemodulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations,superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analogcommunication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitudemodulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions.Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digitalcommunication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse codemodulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequencyshift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidthconsideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basicsof TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elementsof vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’sequations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector.Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction;phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristicimpedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; Sparameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides;boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagationin dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipoleantennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.Linear Algebra : MatrixAlgebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus : Meanvalue theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite andimproper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals,Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations : First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables : Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics : Sampling theorems, Conditional probability,Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete andcontinuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlationand regression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory : Fouriertransform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph,KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks;sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, twoport networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere’s and BiotSavart’s laws; inductance; dielectrics;capacitance.
Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discretetime signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear,timeinvariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer– equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation; autotransformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors;synchronous machines – performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.
Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance,insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control;power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection;solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACT Sconcepts.
Control Systems: Principles of feedback;transfer function; block diagrams; steadystate errors; Routh and Niquisttechniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and leadlag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridgesand potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction typeinstruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor;instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time andfrequency measurement; Qmeters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; erroranalysis.
Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers – biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers –characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers;combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger;multivibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.
Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs – static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters – fully controlled and half controlled;principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc andac drives.
Linear Algebra : Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus : Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives,Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals,Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations : First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations,Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables : Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics : Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,Random variables, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods : Numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Engineering Mechanics: Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum(linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.
Strength of Materials: Stress and strain,stressstrain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slidercrank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping; vibration isolation;resonance, critical speeds of shafts.
Design: Design for static and dynamic loading;failure theories; fatigue strength and the SN diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted,riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches.
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; controlvolume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum;Bernoulli’s equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer;elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.
HeatTransfer: Modes of heat transfer; onedimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.
Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and processes; Carnot cycle . irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases,properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes;analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.
Applications: Power Engineering : Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines :airstandard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and airconditioning : Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbo machinery: Peltonwheel,Francis and Kaplan turbines — impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.
Engineering Materials : Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment,stressstrain diagrams for engineering materials.
Metal Casting: Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design, design considerations.
Forming: Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending)metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.
Joining: Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in welding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining, single and multipoint cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of nontraditional machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs and fixtures
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances;linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry;form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysisin manufacturing and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.
Production Planning and Control: Fore casting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control: Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Process Calculations and Thermodynamics: Laws of conservation of mass and energy; use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; degree of freedom analysis.
First and Second laws of thermodynamics. First law application to close and open systems.Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: equation of state and departure function,properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems;chemical reaction equilibrium.
Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations: Fluidstatics, Newtonian and non Newtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance, dimensional analysis, shell balances, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors, packed and fluidized beds, elementary boundary layer theory, size reduction and size separation; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, mixing and agitation; conveying of solids.
Heat Transfer: Conduction, convection and radiation, heat transfer coefficients, steady and unsteady heat conduction,boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporator sand their design.
Mass Transfer: Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stagewise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquidliquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.
Chemical Reaction Engineering: Theories ofreaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kineticdata, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, nonideal reactors;residence time distribution, single parameter model; nonisothermal reactors;kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.
Instrumentation and Process Control: Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, transfer functions and dynamic responses of simple systems, process reaction curve,controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response and controller tuning, cascade, feed forward control.
Plant Design and Economics: Process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors, heat exchangers,multistage contactors; principles of process economics and cost estimation including total annualized cost, cost indexes, rate of return, payback period,discounted cash flow, optimization in design.
Chemical Technology: Inorganic chemical industries; sulfuric acid, NaOH, fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP);natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries; polyethylene,polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers.
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems oflinear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit,continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definiteand improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima andminima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directionalderivatives, line, surface and volume integrals. Theorems of Stokes, Gauss andGreen.
Differential Equations: First order linear andnonlinear equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients,Cauchy and Euler equations, initial and boundary value problems, Laplacetransforms. Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods.
Numerical methods: Numerical solution oflinear and nonlinear algebraic equations, integration by trapezoidal andSimpson rule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere.Classification of aircraft.Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration andvarious parts.
Airplane performance: Pressure altitude;equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; Primary flight instruments:Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turnbank indicator. Drag polar; takeoff and landing;steady climb & descent,absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb,endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, Vn diagram; Winds: head,tail & cross winds.
Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip;roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed & free stability,horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tailposition and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position;hinge moments, stick forces.
Dynamic stability: Euler angles; Equations ofmotion; aerodynamic forces and moments, stability & control derivatives;decoupling of longitudinal and latdirectional dynamics; longitudinal modes;lateraldirectional modes.
Central force motion, determination of trajectory andorbital period in simple cases.Orbit transfer, inplane andoutofplane.Elements of rocket motor performance.
Basic Fluid Mechanics: Incompressibleirrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem, singularities andsuperposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.
Airfoils and wings: Classification ofairfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift devices, KuttaJoukowskitheorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory; induced drag;qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.
Viscous Flows: Flow separation, introductionto turbulence, transition, structure of a turbulent boundary layer.
Compressible Flows: Dynamics andThermodynamics of ID flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock,PrandtlMeyer flow, flow in nozzles and diffusers, inviscid flow in a cdnozzle, flow in diffusers. subsonic and supersonic airfoils, compressibilityeffects on lift and drag, critical and drag divergence Mach number, wave drag.
Wind Tunnel Testing: Measurement andvisualization techniques.
Stress and Strain: Equations of equilibrium,constitutive law, straindisplacement relationship, compatibility equations,plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function.
Flight Vehicle Structures: Characteristics ofaircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending and flexural shear.Flexural shear flow in thinwalled sections. Buckling. Failure theories. Loadson aircraft.
Structural Dynamics: Free and forced vibrationof discrete systems. Damping and resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.
Thermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines thrust andthrust augmentation.
Turbo machinery: Axial compressors andturbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors.
Aerothermodynamics of nonrotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle. Thermodynamics of ramjets andscramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.
Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants,Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity anddifferentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences andseries; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl;Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinearfirst order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’sand Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs Laplace, heat and waveequations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, modeand standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomialdistributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear andnonlinear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule;single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Sources of power on the farmhuman, animal, mechanical,electrical, wind, solar and biomass; biofuels; design and selection of machineelements – gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload safetydevices used in farm machinery; measurement of force, torque, speed,displacement and acceleration on machine elements.
Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitchsystems and hitching of tillage implements; mechanics of animal traction;functional requirements, principles of working, construction and operation ofmanual, animal and power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting,fertilizer application, intercultivation, spraying, mowing, chaff cutting,harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery andequipment; calculation of performance parameters field capacity, efficiency,application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors
Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. enginecycles; engine components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and theirproperties; I.C. engine systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition,electrical, intake and exhaust; selection, operation, maintenance and repair ofI.C. engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of power, torque,fuel consumption, heat load and power losses.
Tractors and power tillers – type, selection, maintenanceand repair; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – geartrains, differential, final drives and power takeoff; mechanics of tractorchassis; traction theory; three point hitches free link and restrained linkoperations; mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors;human engineering and safety in tractor design; tractor tests and performance.
Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostaticpressure and its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface;continuity equation; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes,Darcy Weisbach and HazenWilliams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow throughorifices and notches; flow in open channels.
Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitionsand relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepageanalysis; shear strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earthpressures; stability of slopes.
Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and theirmeasurement, analysis of precipitation data; abstraction from precipitation;runoff; hydrograph analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; streamflow measurement; flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.
Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methodsof traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane table surveying; typesof leveling; contouring; instruments for surveying and leveling; computation ofearth work.
Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind andwater erosion; factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological andengineering measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways;gully control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams;water harvesting structures, farm ponds, watershed management.
Soilwaterplant relationship, water requirement of crops;consumptive use and evapotranspiration; irrigation scheduling; irrigationefficiencies; design of irrigation channels; measurement of soil moisture,irrigation water and infiltration; surface, sprinkler and drip methods ofirrigation; design and evaluation of irrigation methods.
Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout ofsurface and subsurface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinitycontrol; irrigation and drainage water quality.
Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers,evaluation of aquifer properties; well hydraulics; groundwater recharge.
Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pumpselection and installation.
Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection andradiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; condensation and boilingheat transfer; working principles of heat exchangers; diffusive and convectivemass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural processingoperations.
Material and energy balances in food processing systems;water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms; centrifugal separation ofsolids, liquids and gases; kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization andsterilization of liquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing;refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications; psychrometry –properties of airvapors mixture; concentration and drying of liquid foods –evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers.
Mechanics and energy requirement in size reduction ofgranular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size separationby screening; fluidization of granular solidspneumatic, bucket, screw and beltconveying; cleaning and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners.
Hydrothermal treatment, drying and milling of cereals,pulses and oilseeds; Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and vegetables;Byproduct utilization from processing industries.
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable foodstorage, godowns, bins and grain silos.
City planning: Evolution ofcities; principles of city planning; types of cities & new towns; planningregulations and building byelaws; ecocity concept; sustainable development.
Housing : Concept of housing; neighborhood concept; siteplanning principles; housing typology; housing standards; housinginfrastructure; housing policies, finance and management; housing programs inIndia; selfhelp housing.
Landscape Design : Principles of landscape design and siteplanning; history of landscape styles; landscape elements and materials; plantcharacteristics & planting design; environmental considerations inlandscape planning.
Computer Aided Design : Application of computers in architecture andplanning; understanding elements of hardware and software; computer graphics;programming languages – C and Visual Basic and usage of packages such asAutoCAD, 3DStudio, 3D Max.
Environmental Studies in Building Science : Components of Ecosystem; ecological principlesconcerning environment; climate responsive design; energy efficient buildingdesign; thermal comfort; solar architecture; principles of lighting and stylesfor illumination; basic principles of architectural acoustics; environmentpollution, their control & abatement.
Visual and Urban Design : Principles of visual composition; proportion,scale, rhythm, symmetry, harmony, datum, balance, form, colour, texture; senseof place and space, division of space; barrier free design; focal point, vista,image ability, visual survey, figurebackground relationship.
History of Architecture : Indian – Indus valley, Vedic, Buddhist, IndoAryan, Dravidian and Mughal periods; European – Egyptian, Greek, Roman,medieval and renaissance periods construction and architectural styles;vernacular and traditional architecture.
Development of Contemporary Architecture : Architectural developments and impacts onsociety since industrial revolution; influence of modern art on architecture;works of national and international architects; art novuea, eclecticism,international styles, post modernism, deconstruction in architecture.
Building Services : Water supply, sewerage and drainage systems;sanitary fittings and fixtures; plumbing systems, principles of internal &external drainage systems, principles of electrification of buildings,intelligent buildings; elevators & escalators, their standards and uses;airconditioning systems; fire fighting systems, building safety and securitysystems.
Building Construction and Management : Building construction techniques, methods anddetails; building systems and prefabrication of building elements; principlesof modular coordination; estimation, specification, valuation, professional practice; project management techniques e.g., PERT, CPM etc;
Materials and Structural Systems : Behavioral characteristics of all types ofbuilding materials e.g. mud, timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass,FRP, different polymers, composites; principles of strength of materials;design of structural elements in wood, steel and RCC; elastic and limit statedesign; complex structural systems; principles of prestressing; tall buildings;principles of disaster resistant structures.
Planning Theory : Regional planning; settlement system planning;history of human settlements; growth of cities & metropolises; principlesof Ekistics; ruralurban migration; urban conservation; urban renewal;Fiveyear plan; structural and sectoral plan.
Techniques of Planning : Planning survey techniques; preparation of urbanand regional structure plans, development plans, action plans; site planningprinciples and design; statistical methods of data analysis; application ofG.I.S and remote sensing techniques in urban and regional planning; decisionmaking models.
Traffic and Transportation Planning : Principles of traffic engineering andtransportation planning; traffic survey methods; design of roads,intersections, grade separators and parking areas; hierarchy of roads andlevels of services; traffic and transport management in urban areas,intelligent transportation system; mass transportation planning; paratransitsand other modes of transportation, pedestrian & slow moving trafficplanning.
Infrastructure, Services and Amenities : Principles of water supply and sanitationsystems; water treatment; solid waste disposal systems; waste treatment,recycle & reuse; urban rainwater harvesting; power supply and communicationsystems — network, design & guidelines; demography related standards atvarious levels of the settlements for health, education, recreation, religious& publicsemi public facilities.
Development Administration and Management : Planning laws; development control and zoningregulations; laws relating to land acquisition; development enforcements, urbanland ceiling; land management techniques; planning and municipaladministration; disaster mitigation management; 73 ^{rd }& 74 ^{th }Constitutional amendments; valuation & taxation; revenue resources andfiscal management; public participation and role of NGO & CBO; Institutionalnetworking & capacity building.
Structure: Quantum theory: principles andtechniques; applications to a particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, rigidrotor and hydrogen atom; valence bond and molecular orbital theories, Hückelapproximation; approximate techniques: variation and perturbation; symmetry,point groups; rotational, vibrational, electronic, NMR, and ESR spectroscopy
Equilibrium: Kinetic theory of gases; Firstlaw of thermodynamics, heat, energy, and work; second law of thermodynamics andentropy; third law and absolute entropy; free energy; partial molar quantities;ideal and nonideal solutions; phase transformation: phase rule and phasediagrams – one, two, and three component systems; activity, activitycoefficient, fugacity, and fugacity coefficient; chemical equilibrium, responseof chemical equilibrium to temperature and pressure; colligative properties;DebyeHückel theory; thermodynamics of electrochemical cells; standardelectrode potentials: applications – corrosion and energy conversion; molecularpartition function (translational, rotational, vibrational, and electronic).
Kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions,temperature dependence of chemical reactions; elementary, consecutive, andparallel reactions; steady state approximation; theories of reaction rates –collision and transition state theory, relaxation kinetics, kinetics of photochemicalreactions and free radical polymerization, homogeneous catalysis, adsorptionisotherms and heterogeneous catalysis.
Main group elements : General characteristics, allotropes, structure and reactions of simpleand industrially important compounds: boranes, carboranes, silicones,silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes. Hydrides, oxides andoxoacids of pnictogens (N, P), chalcogens (S, Se &Te) and halogens, xenoncompounds, pseudo halogens and interhalogencompounds.Shapes of molecules andhard soft acid base concept. Structure and Bonding (VBT) of B, Al, Si, N, P,S, Cl compounds. Allotropes of carbon: graphite, diamond, C _{60 }.Synthesis and reactivity of inorganic polymers of Si and P.
Transition Elements : General characteristics of d and f block elements; coordinationchemistry: structure and isomerism, stability, theories of metal ligandbonding (CFT and LFT), mechanisms of substitution and electron transferreactions of coordination complexes. Electronic spectra and magnetic propertiesof transition metal complexes, lanthanides and actinides. Metal carbonyls,metal metal bonds and metal atom clusters, metallocenes; transition metalcomplexes with bonds to hydrogen, alkyls, alkenes and arenes; metal carbenes; useof organometallic compounds as catalysts in organic synthesis. Bioinorganicchemistry of Na, K. Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu andMo.
Solids: Crystal systems and lattices, millerplanes, crystal packing, crystal defects; Bragg’s Law, ionic crystals, bandtheory, metals and semiconductors, Different structures of AX, AX _{2 },ABX _{3 }compounds, spinels.
Instrumental methods of analysis : Atomic absorption and emission spectroscopyincluding ICPAES, UV visible spectrophotometry, NMR, mass, Mossbauerspectroscopy (Fe and Sn), ESR spectroscopy, chromatography including GC andHPLC and electroanalytical methods (Coulometry, cyclic voltammetry,polarography – amperometry, and ion selective electrodes).
Stereochemistry : Chiralityof organic molecules with or without chiral centres. Specification ofconfiguration in compounds having one or more stereogeniccentres. Enantiotopicand diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces.Stereoselective and stereospecificsynthesis.Conformational analysis of acyclic and cycliccompounds.Geometricalisomerism.Configurational and conformational effects onreactivity and selectivity/specificity.
Reaction mechanism : Methods of determining reaction mechanisms. Nucleophilic andelectrophilic substitutions and additions to multiple bonds.Eliminationreactions. Reactive intermediates carbocations, carbanions, carbenes,nitrenes, arynes, free radicals. Molecular rearrangements involving electrondeficient atoms.
Organic synthesis : Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving thefollowing alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones,carboxylic acids and their derivatives, halides, nitro compounds and amines.Use of compounds of Mg, Li, Cu, B and Si in organic synthesis.Concepts inmultistep synthesis retrosynthetic analysis, disconnections, synthons,synthetic equivalents, reactivity umpolung, selectivity, protection anddeprotection of functional groups.
Pericyclic reactions : Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic reactions. Orbitalcorrelation, FMO and PMO treatments.
Photochemistry : Basicprinciples. Photochemistry of alkenes, carbonyl compounds, andarenes.Photooxidation and photoreduction.Diπ methane rearrangement, Bartonreaction.
Heterocyclic compounds : Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole,thiophene, pyridine, indole and their derivatives.
Biomolecules : Structure,properties and reactions of mono and disaccharides, physicochemicalproperties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, structural featuresof proteins, nucleic acids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids.
Spectroscopy : Principles and applications of UVvisible, IR, NMR andMass spectrometry in the determination of structures of organic molecules.Population ecology; metapopulation dynamics; growth rates;density independent growth; density dependent growth; niche concept; Speciesinteractions: Plantanimal interactions; mutualism, commensalism, competitionand predation; trophic interactions; functional ecology; ecophysiology;behavioural ecology; Community ecology: Community assembly, organization andevolution; biodiversity: species richness, evenness and diversity indices;endemism; speciesarea relationships; Ecosystem structure, function and services;nutrient cycles; biomes; habitat ecology; primary and secondary productivity;invasive species; global and climate change; applied ecology.
Origin, evolution and diversification of life; naturalselection; levels of selection. Types of selection (stabilizing, directionaletc.); sexual selection; genetic drift; gene flow; adaptation; convergence;species concepts; Life history strategies; adaptive radiation; biogeography andevolutionary ecology; Origin of genetic variation; Mendelian genetics;polygenic traits, linkage and recombination; epistasis, geneenvironmentinteraction; heritability; population genetics; Molecular evolution; molecularclocks; systems of classification: cladistics and phenetics; molecularsystematics; gene expression and evolution.
Mathematics and statistics inecology; Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential, logarithmic, etc);concept of derivatives and slope of a function; permutations and combinations;basic probability (probability of random events; sequences of events, etc);frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance,coefficient of variation, correlation, etc).
Statistical hypothesis testing: Concept of pvalue; Type Iand Type II error, test statistics like ttest and Chisquare test; basics oflinear regression and ANOVA.
Classical ethology; neuroethology; evolutionary ethology;chemical, acoustic and visual signaling Mating systems; sexual dimorphism; matechoice; parenting behaviour Competition; aggression; foraging behaviour;predator–prey interactions; Sociobiology: kin selection, altruism, costs andbenefits of groupliving.
Earth and Planetary system, size, shape, internal structureand composition of the earth; atmosphere and greenhouse effect; isostasy;elements of seismology; physical properties of the interior of the earth;continents and continental processes; physical oceanography; geomagnetism andpaleomagnetism, continental drift, plate tectonics.
Weathering; soilformation; action of river, wind, glacier and ocean; earthquakes, volcanism andorogeny. Basic structural geology,mineralogy and petrology.Geological time scale and geochronology; stratigraphicprinciples; major stratigraphic divisions ofIndia. Engineering properties of rocks andsoils. Ground water geology.Geologicaland geographical distribution of ore, coal and petroleum resources ofIndia.
Introduction to remote sensing.Physical basis andapplications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic andradiometric prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water; introductory welllogging.
Crystalsymmetry, forms, twinning; crystal chemistry;optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and opticalproperties of rock forming minerals.
Igneous rocks – classification, forms and textures,magmatic differentiation; phase diagrams and trace elements as monitors ofmagma evolutionary processes; mantle melting models and derivation and primarymagmas. Metamorphism; controlling factors,metamorphic facies, grade and basic types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic andimpure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic PTt pathsand their tectonic significance; Igneous and metamorphic provinces of India;structure and petrology of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary processes andenvironments, sedimentary facies, basin analysis; association of igneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks withtectonic setting.
Stress, strain and material response; brittle and ductiledeformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds,faults, joints, unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods ofprojection, tectonites and their significance; shear zone; superposed folding;basement cover relationship.
Morphology, classification and geological significance ofimportant invertebrates, vertebrates, microfossils and palaeoflora;stratigraphic principles and Indian stratigraphy.
Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolutionof landforms; slope and drainage; processes on deep oceanic and nearshoreregions; quantitative and applied geomorphology.
Oremineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; oreforming processes visàvis orerock association (magmatic, hydrothermal,sedimentary and metamorphogenic ores); oresand metamorphism; fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool;prospecting and exploration of economic minerals; sampling, ore reserveestimation, geostatistics, mining methods. Coal and petroleum geology; origin and distribution of mineral and fueldeposits inIndia; marine geology and ocean resources; ore dressing and mineraleconomics.
Cosmic abundance; meteorites; geochemical evolution of theearth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements;elements of geochemical thermodynamics, isotope geochemistry; geochemistry ofwaters including solution equilibria and water rock interaction.
Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks asconstruction materials; role of geology in the construction of engineering structuresincluding dams, tunnels and excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology – exploration, wellhydraulics and water quality. Basicprinciples of remote sensing – energy sources and radiation principles,atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earth’s surface, airphotointerpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IRand microwave regions, digital processing of satellite images. GIS – basic concepts, raster and vector modeoperation.
The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’stheorem, size and shape of earth; geochronology; seismology and interior of theearth; variation of density, velocity,pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth;earthquakescauses and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms,earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismichazards; digital seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic andcontinental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and loweratmospheric phenomena.
Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell andHelmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problemsin Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem;Image theory; integral equations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and Raytheory. Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems of geophysics,Illposedness of inverse problems.
‘G’ and ‘g’ units of measurement, absolute and relativegravity measurements; Land, airborne, shipborne and borehole gravity surveys;various corrections in gravity datareduction – free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates ofrocks; regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalentstratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering; preparationand analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their interpretation –anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped bodies, depth rules,calculation of mass.
Earth’s magnetic field – elements, origin and units ofmeasurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers,Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, corrections, preparation ofmagnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomaliesgeometricalshaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing concepts in processing ofmagnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.
Conduction of electricity through rocks, electricalconductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and differentrocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various electrodeconfigurations for resistivity sounding and profiling, application of filtertheory, Typecurves over multilayered structures, DarZarrouck parameters,reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivityfield data, equivalence and suppression, selfpotential and its origin, fieldmeasurement, Induced polarization, timeand frequency domain IP measurements; interpretation and applications of IP,groundwater exploration, environmental and engineering applications.
Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of electromagneticfield, elliptic polarization, methods of measurement for differentsourcereceiver configuration, components in EM measurements. Skindepth, interpretation and applications;earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magnetotellurics;geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling, methods ofmeasurement, processing of data and interpretation. Geological applications includinggroundwater, mining and hydrocarbon exploration.
Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earthmaterials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismicsources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models,geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, fieldlayouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping,noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic dataacquisition, processing and interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning,filtering, dipmoveout, static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismicdeconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots,seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics.
Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing,Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Ztransformand wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, crosscorrelation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters,windows, poles and zeros.
Principles and techniques of geophysical welllogging. SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray,neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic,cement bond logging, micrologs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulicsand application of geophysical methods for groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in groundwater, mineral and oil exploration.
Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of minerals(radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, halflife, decay constant,radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductordevices, application of radiometric for exploration and radioactive wastedisposal.
Geophysical inverse problems; nonuniqueness and stabilityof solutions; quasilinear and nonlinear methods including Tikhonov’sregularization method, BackusGilbert method, simulated annealing, geneticalgorithms and artificial neural network.
Linear Algebra: Finite dimensional vectorspaces; Linear transformations and their matrix representations, rank; systemsof linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors, minimal polynomial,CayleyHamilton Theroem, diagonalisation, Hermitian, SkewHermitian and unitarymatrices; Finite dimensional inner product spaces, GramSchmidtorthonormalization process, selfadjoint operators.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions,conformal mappings, bilinear transformations; complex integration: Cauchy’sintegral theorem and formula; Liouville’s theorem, maximum modulus principle;Taylor and Laurent’s series; residue theorem and applications for evaluatingreal integrals.
Real Analysis: Sequences and series offunctions, uniform convergence, power series, Fourier series, functions ofseveral variables, maxima, minima; Riemann integration, multiple integrals,line, surface and volume integrals, theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss; metricspaces, completeness, Weierstrass approximation theorem, compactness; Lebesguemeasure, measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatou’s lemma, dominatedconvergence theorem.
Ordinary Differential Equations: First orderordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems, systems oflinear first order ordinary differential equations, linear ordinarydifferential equations of higher order with constant coefficients; linearsecond order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; methodof Laplace transforms for solving ordinary differential equations, seriessolutions; Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonality.
Algebra: Normal subgroups and homomorphismtheorems, automorphisms; Group actions, Sylow’s theorems and theirapplications; Euclidean domains, Principle ideal domains and uniquefactorization domains. Prime ideals and maximal ideals in commutative rings;Fields, finite fields.
Functional Analysis: Banach spaces,HahnBanach extension theorem, open mapping and closed graph theorems,principle of uniform boundedness; Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, Rieszrepresentation theorem, bounded linear operators.
Numerical Analysis: Numerical solution ofalgebraic and transcendental equations: bisection, secant method,NewtonRaphson method, fixed point iteration; interpolation: error ofpolynomial interpolation, Lagrange, Newton interpolations; numericaldifferentiation; numerical integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules, GaussLegendrequadrature, method of undetermined parameters; least square polynomialapproximation; numerical solution of systems of linear equations: directmethods (Gauss elimination, LU decomposition); iterative methods (Jacobi andGaussSeidel); matrix eigenvalue problems: power method, numerical solution ofordinary differential equations: initial value problems: Taylor series methods,Euler’s method, RungeKutta methods.
Partial Differential Equations: Linear andquasilinear first order partial differential equations, method ofcharacteristics; second order linear equations in two variables and theirclassification; Cauchy, Dirichlet and Neumann problems; solutions of Laplace,wave and diffusion equations in two variables; Fourier series and Fouriertransform and Laplace transform methods of solutions for the above equations.
Mechanics: Virtual work, Lagrange’s equationsfor holonomic systems, Hamiltonian equations.
Topology: Basic concepts of topology, producttopology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms,Urysohn’s Lemma.
Probability and Statistics: Probability space,conditional probability, Bayes theorem, independence, Random variables, jointand conditional distributions, standard probability distributions and theirproperties, expectation, conditional expectation, moments; Weak and strong lawof large numbers, central limit theorem; Sampling distributions, UMVUestimators, maximum likelihood estimators, Testing of hypotheses, standardparametric tests based on normal , X ^{2 }, t, F – distributions; Linear regression; Interval estimation.
Linear programming: Linear programming problemand its formulation, convex sets and their properties, graphical method, basicfeasible solution, simplex method, bigM and two phase methods; infeasible andunbounded LPP’s, alternate optima; Dual problem and duality theorems, dualsimplex method and its application in post optimality analysis; Balanced andunbalanced transportation problems, u u method for solving transportationproblems; Hungarian method for solving assignment problems.
Calculus of Variation and Integral Equations: Variationproblems with fixed boundaries; sufficient conditions for extremum, linearintegral equations of Fredholm and Volterra type, their iterative solutions.Linear Algebra : Matrices and Determinants,Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit,continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima;Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus : Gradient;Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss andGreen’s theorems.
Diferential Equations : Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs withconstant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs– Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation;Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation andregression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration oftrapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differentialequations.
Mechanics : Equivalentforce systems; Equations of equilibrium; Two dimensional frames and trusses;Free body diagrams; Friction forces; Particle kinematics and dynamics.
Mine Development, Geomechanics and Ground Control : Methods of access to deposits; Undergrounddrivages; Drilling methods and machines; Explosives, blasting devices andpractices.
Geotechnical properties of rocks; Rock massclassification; Ground control, instrumentation and stress measurementtechniques; Theories of rock failure; Ground vibrations; Stress distributionaround mine openings; Subsidence; Design of supports in roadways and workings;Rock bursts and coal bumps; Slope stability.
Mining Methods and Machinery : Surface mining: layout, development, loading,transportation and mechanization, continuous surface mining systems;Underground coal mining: bord and pillar systems, room and pillar mining,longwall mining, thick seam mining methods; Underground metal mining : open,supported and caved stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems,mine filling.
Generation and transmission of mechanical, hydraulic andpneumatic power; Materials handling: haulages, conveyors, face and developmentmachinery, hoisting systems, pumps.
Ventilation, Underground Hazards and Surface Environment : Underground atmosphere; Heat load sources andthermal environment, air cooling; Mechanics of air flow, distribution, naturaland mechanical ventilation; Mine fans and their usage; Auxiliary ventilation;Ventilation planning.
Subsurface hazards from fires, explosions, gases, dust andinundation; Rescue apparatus and practices; Safety in mines, accident analysis,noise, mine lighting, occupational health and risk.
Air, water and soil pollution : causes, dispersion, qualitystandards, reclamation and control.
Surveying, Mine Planning and Systems Engineering : Fundamentals of engineering surveying; Levelsand leveling, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation, contouring, errors andadjustments, correlation; Underground surveying; Curves; Photogrammetry; Fieldastronomy; EDM, total station and GPS fundamentals.
Principles of planning: Sampling methods andpractices, reserve estimation techniques, basics of geostatistics and qualitycontrol, optimization of facility location, cash flow concepts and minevaluation, open pit design; GIS fundamentals.
Workstudy; Concepts of reliability, reliability of seriesand parallel systems.
Linear programming, transportation and assignment problems,queueing, network analysis, basics of simulation.
Linear Algebra : Matrices and Determinants,Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit,continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima;Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus : Gradient;Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss andGreen’s theorems.
Differential Equations : Linear and nonlinearfirst order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’sand Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and waveequations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation;Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation andregression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration oftrapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differentialequations.
Thermodynamics and Rate Processes : Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibriumconstant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria,Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfacesand defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order ofreactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electrochemistry single electrode potential, electrochemical cells andpolarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, oxidation and hightemperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer –conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, masstransfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentumtransfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation,friction factors.
Extractive Metallurgy : Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, sizeclassification, Flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing;agglomeration, pyro hydro and electrometallurgical processes; material andenergy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of nonferrousmetals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and otherrare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and propertiesof slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes,primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations includingdeoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing andvacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR andESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces andrefractories.
Physical Metallurgy : Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys,ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nanocrystallineand amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformationand binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast ironand aluminum alloys; surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and graingrowth; industrially important ferrous and nonferrous alloys; elements ofXray and electron diffraction; principles of scanning and transmissionelectron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; electronicbasis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials;electronic and optoelectronic materials.
Mechanical Metallurgy : Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elementsof dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source andmultiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partialdislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms;tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; superplasticity; fracture – Griffiththeory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elastoplastic fracture mechanics,ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanicaltesting – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue,fracture toughness and formability.
Manufacturing Processes: Metal casting –patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating andrisering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting,investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; hot, warmand cold working of metals, Metal forming – fundamentals of metal formingprocesses of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming,defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, commonwelding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gastungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; welding metallurgy, problemsassociated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in weldedjoints; powder metallurgy; NDT using dyepenetrant, ultrasonic, radiography,eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.
Mathematical Physics: Linear vector space;matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complexanalysis; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis, elementary ideas about tensors.
Classical Mechanics: Conservation laws;central forces, Kepler problem and planetary motion; collisions and scatteringin laboratory and centre of mass frames; mechanics of system of particles;rigid body dynamics; moment of inertia tensor; noninertial frames and pseudoforces; variational principle; Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formalisms; equationof motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic motion, smalloscillations, normal modes; special theory of relativity – Lorentztransformations, relativistic kinematics, massenergy equivalence.
Electromagnetic Theory: Solution ofelectrostatic and magnetostatic problems includingboundary valueproblems;dielectricsandconductors; BiotSavart’s and Ampere’s laws; Faraday’slaw; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentzgauges; Electromagnetic waves and their reflection, refraction, interference,diffraction and polarization. Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy andmomentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.
Quantum Mechanics: Physical basis of quantum mechanics;uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one, two and three dimensionalpotential problems; particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom;linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin;addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementaryscattering theory.
Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: Lawsof thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; probabilityensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamicquantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black bodyradiation and Planck’s distribution law; BoseEinstein condensation; first andsecond order phase transitions, critical point.
Atomic and Molecular Physics: Spectra of oneand manyelectron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman andStark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; Xray spectra;rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transitionin diatomic molecules, FranckCondon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR;lasers.
Solid State Physics: Elements ofcrystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding insolids; elastic properties of solids; defects in crystals; lattice vibrationsand thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids;metals, semiconductors and insulators; transport properties; optical,dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.
Nuclear and Particle Physics: Nuclear radiiand charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magneticmoments; nuclear models, liquid drop model – semiempirical mass formula, Fermigas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleonproblem; Alpha decay, Betadecay, electromagnetic transitions innuclei;Rutherfordscattering,nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission andfusion;particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons,baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.
Electronics: Network analysis; semiconductordevices; Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors, amplifier andoscillator circuits; operational amplifier, negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators ;rectifier circuits, regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits,sequential circuits, flipflops, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.
Linear Algebra : Matrix algebra, Systems oflinear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus : Functions of single variable, Limit,continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definiteand improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima andminima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directionalderivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’stheorems.
Differential equations : First order equations (linearand nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constantcoefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary valueproblems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and waveequations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables : Analytic functions, Cauchy’sintegral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics : Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditionalprobability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables,Poisson,Normal and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods : Numerical solutions of linearand nonlinear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’srule, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Engineering Materials: Structure andproperties of engineering materials and their applications; effect of strain,strain rate and temperature on mechanical properties of metals and alloys; heattreatment of metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties.
Applied Mechanics: Engineering mechanics –equivalent force systems, free body concepts, equations of equilibrium;strength of materials – stress, strain and their relationship, Mohr’s circle,deflection of beams, bending and shear stress, Euler’s theory of columns.
Theory of Machines and Design: Analysis ofplanar mechanisms, cams and followers; governers and fly wheels; design ofelements – failure theories; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints;design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and clutches.
Thermal Engineering: Fluid mechanics – fluidstatics, Bernoulli’s equation, flow through pipes, equations of continuity andmomentum; thermodynamics – zeroth, first and second law of thermodynamics,thermodynamic system and processes, calculation of work and heat for systemsand control volumes; air standard cycles; basics of internal combustion enginesand steam turbines; heat transfer – fundamentals of conduction, convection andradiation, heat exchangers.
Metal Casting: Casting processes – types andapplications; patterns – types and materials; allowances; moulds and cores –materials, making, and testing; casting techniques of cast iron, steels andnonferrous metals and alloys; solidification; design of casting, gating and risering;casting inspection, defects and remedies.
Metal Forming: Stressstrain relations inelastic and plastic deformation; concept of flow stress, deformationmechanisms; hot and cold working – forging, rolling, extrusion, wire and tubedrawing; sheet metal working processes such as blanking, piercing, bending,deep drawing, coining and embossing; analysis of rolling, forging, extrusionand wire /rod drawing; metal working defects.
Metal Joining Processes: Welding processes –manual metal arc, MIG, TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc, electro slag, thermit,resistance, forge, friction, and explosive welding;other joining processes –soldering, brazing, braze welding; inspection of welded joints, defects andremedies; introduction to advanced welding processes – ultrasonic, electronbeam, laser beam; thermal cutting.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Basicmachine tools; machining processesturning, drilling, boring, milling, shaping,planning, gear cutting, thread production, broaching, grinding, lapping, honing,super finishing; mechanics of machining – geometry of cutting tools, chipformation, cutting forces and power requirements, Merchant’s analysis;selection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life,economics of machining, thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids,machinability; principles and applications of nontraditional machiningprocesses – USM, AJM, WJM, EDM and Wire cut EDM, LBM, EBM, PAM, CHM, ECM.
Tool Engineering: Jigs and fixtures –principles, applications, and design; press tools – configuration, design ofdie and punch; principles of forging die design.
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits, andtolerances, interchangeability, selective assembly; linear and angularmeasurements by mechanical and optical methods, comparators; design of limitgauges; interferometry; measurement of straightness, flatness, roundness,squareness and symmetry; surface finish measurement; inspection of screwthreads and gears; alignment testing of machine tools.
Powder Metallurgy : Production of metalpowders, compaction and sintering.
Polymers and Composites: Introduction topolymers and composites; plastic processing – injection, compression and blowmolding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites.
Manufacturing Analysis: Sources of errors inmanufacturing; process capability; tolerance analysis in manufacturing andassembly; process planning; parameter selection and comparison of productionalternatives; time and cost analysis; manufacturing technologies – strategiesand selection.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basicconcepts of CAD,CAM, CAPP, cellular manufacturing, NC, CNC, DNC, Robotics, FMS,and CIM.
Product Design and Development: Principles ofgood product design, tolerance design; quality and cost considerations; productlife cycle; standardization, simplification, diversification, value engineeringand analysis, concurrent engineering.
Engineering Economy and Costing: Elementarycost accounting and methods of depreciation; breakeven analysis, techniquesfor evaluation of capital investments, financial statements.
Work System Design: Taylor’s scientificmanagement, Gilbreths’s contributions; productivity – concepts and measurements;methodstudy, micromotion study, principles of motion economy; work measurement– stop watch time study, work sampling, standard data, PMTS; ergonomics; jobevaluation, merit rating, incentive schemes, and wage administration; businessprocess reengineering.
Facility Design: Facility location factors andevaluation of alternate locations; types of plant layout and their evaluation;computer aided layout design techniques; assembly line balancing; materialshandling systems.
Production Planning and Inventory Control: Forecastingtechniques – causal and time series models, moving average, exponentialsmoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production planning; masterproduction scheduling; MRP and MRPII; order control and flow control; routing,scheduling and priority dispatching; push and pull production systems, conceptof JIT manufacturing system; logistics, distribution, and supply chainmanagement; Inventory – functions, costs, classifications, deterministic andprobabilistic inventory models, quantity discount; perpetual and periodicinventory control systems.
Operation Research: Linear programming –problem formulation, simplex method, duality and sensitivity analysis;transportation and assignment models; network flow models, constrained optimizationand Lagrange multipliers; simple queuing models; dynamic programming;simulation – manufacturing applications; PERT and CPM, timecost tradeoff,resource leveling.
Quality Management: Quality – concept andcosts, quality circles, quality assurance; statistical quality control,acceptance sampling, zero defects, six sigma; total quality management; ISO9000; design of experiments – Taguchi method.
Reliability and Maintenance: Reliability,availability and maintainability; distribution of failure and repair times;determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models; system reliabilitydetermination; preventive maintenance and replacement, total productivemaintenance – concept and applications.
Management Information System: Value ofinformation; information storage and retrieval system – database and datastructures; knowledge based systems.
Intellectual Property System: Definition ofintellectual property, importance of IPR; TRIPS and its implications, patent,copyright, industrial design and trademark.
Linear Algebra : Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues and eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit,continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima;Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus : Gradient;Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss andGreen’s theorems.
Differential Equations : Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs withconstant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs– Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation;Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation andregression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solutions of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations; integration oftrapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differentialequations.
Textile Fibers: Classification of textilefibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers; Gross and finestructure of natural fibers like cotton, wool and silk. Introduction toimportant bastfibres; properties and uses of natural and manmade fibers;physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blendanalysis.
Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases,glass transition, plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting T _{g }and T _{m }; Process of viscose and acetate preparation. Polymerizationof nylon6, nylon66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile andpolypropylene; Melt Spinning processes, characteristic features of PET,polyamide and polypropylene spinning; wet and dry spinning of viscose andacrylic fibres; post spinning operations such as drawing, heat setting,towtotop conversion and different texturing methods.
Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density,Xray diffraction, birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R.absorption, thermal methods (DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphologyofmanmade fibres, mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption infibres; fibre structure and property correlation.
Yarn manufacture and yarn structure & properties: Principlesof opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, workingprinciple of modern opening and cleaning equipments; the technology of carding,carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and aprondrafting principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; rollerarrangements in drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle,mechanism and function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recentdevelopments in comber; Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, rovingtwist; Principle of ring spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler; ring& traveler designs; mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages;working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and foldedyarn twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn, compactspinning, principle of nonconventional methods of yarn production such asrotor spinning, air jet spinning, wrap spinning, twist less spinning andfriction spinning.
Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume &packing coefficient; twist strength relationship in spun yarns; fibreconfiguration and orientation in yarn; cause of fibre migration and itsestimation, irregularity index, properties of ring, rotor and airjet yarns.
Fabric manufacture and Fabric Structure: Principlesof cheese and cone winding processes and machines; random and precisionwinding; package faults and their remedies; yarn clearers and tensioners;different systems of yarn splicing; features of modern cone winding machines;different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and sectionalwarping machines; different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament yarns,modern sizing machines; principles of pirn winding processes and machines;primary and secondary motions of loom, effect of their settings and timings onfabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving performance; dobby and jacquardshedding; mechanics of weft insertion with shuttle; warp and weft stop motions,warp protection, weft replenishment; functional principles of weft insertionsystems of shuttleless weaving machines, principles of multiphase and circularlooms.
Principles of weft and warp knitting; basic weft and warpknitted structures. Classification, production and areas of application ofnonwoven fabrics.Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe,cord, terry, gauze, leno and double cloth constructions.Peirce’s equations forfabric geometry; elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover andmaximum set of woven fabrics.
Textile Testing : Samplingtechniques, sample size and sampling errors. Measurement of fibre length,fineness, crimp, strength and reflectance; measurement of cotton fiber maturityand trash content; HVI and AFIS for fibre testing. Measurement of yarn count,twist and hairiness; tensile testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; evennesstesting of slivers, rovings and yarns; testing equipment for measurement testmethods of fabric properties like thickness, compressibility, air permeability,drape, crease recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasionresistance. FAST and Kawabata instruments and systems for objective fabricevaluation.Statistical data analysis of experimental results. Correlationanalysis, significance tests and analysis of variance; frequency distributionsand control charts.
Preparatory Processes: Chemistry and practiceof preparatory processes for cotton, wool and silk. Mercerization of cotton.Preparatory processes for nylon, polyester and acrylic and polyester/cottonblends.
Dyeing: Classification of dyes.Dyeing ofcotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with appropriate dye classes.Dyeing polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends. Batch wise and continuousdyeing machines. Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used. Dye fibreinteraction. Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing.Methods fordetermination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.Evaluation of fastnessproperties with the help of grey scale.
Printing: Styles of printing. Printingthickeners including synthetic thickeners.Printingauxiliaries.Printing ofcotton with reactive dyes.Printing of wool, silk, nylon with acid and metalcomplex dyes.Printing of polyester with disperse dyes. Methods of dye fixationafter printing. Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester.Printing of polyester/cotton blends with disperse/reactive combination.Transfer printing of polyester. Developments in inkjet printing.
Finishing : Mechanical finishing of cotton . Stiff.Soft, wrinkle resistant, waterrepellent, flame retardant and enzyme (biopolishing) finishing ofcotton.Milling, decatizing and shrink resistant finishing of wool.Antis tatfinishing of synthetic fiberfabrics.Heat setting of polyester.
Energy Conservation: Minimum applicationtechniques.
Pollution: Environment pollution duringchemical processing of textiles. Treatment of textile effluents.
Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, inverse,rank, system of linear equations, symmetric, skewsymmetric and orthogonalmatrices. Hermitian, skewHermitian and unitary matrices.eigenvalues andeigenvectors, diagonalisation of matrices, CayleyHamilton Theorem.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit,continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms andL’Hospital rule, Maxima and minima,Taylor’s series, Fundamental and meanvaluetheorems of integral calculus. Evaluation of definite and improperintegrals, Beta and Gamma functions, Functions of two variables, limit,continuity, partial derivatives, Euler’s theorem for homogeneous functions,total derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange method of multipliers, doubleand triple integrals and their applications, sequence and series, tests forconvergence, power series, Fourier Series, Half range sine and cosine series.
Complex variable: Analytic functions,CauchyRiemann equations, Application in solving potential problems, Lineintegral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof),Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem (without proof) and itsapplications.
Vector Calculus: Gradient, divergence andcurl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volumeintegrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems (without proofs) applications.
Ordinary Differential Equations: First orderequation (linear and nonlinear), Second order linear differential equationswith variable coefficients, Variation of parameters method, higher order lineardifferential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy Euler’s equations,power series solutions, Legendre polynomials and Bessel’s functions of thefirst kind and their properties.
Partial Differential Equations: Separation ofvariables method,Laplace equation, solutions of one dimensional heat and waveequations.
Probability and Statistics : Definitions of probability and simple theorems,conditional probability, Bayes Theorem, random variables, discrete andcontinuous distributions, Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions,correlation and linear regression.
Numerical Methods: Solution of a system oflinear equations by LU decomposition, GaussJordan and GaussSeidel Methods,Newton’s interpolation formulae, Solution of a polynomial and a transcendentalequation by NewtonRaphson method, numerical integration by trapezoidal rule,Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature, numerical solutions of first orderdifferential equation by Euler’s method and 4 ^{th }order RungeKuttamethod.
Fluid Properties: Relation between stress andstrain rate for Newtonian fluids.
Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces onsubmerged bodies.
Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluid motion,concept of local and convective accelerations, steady and unsteady flows,control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.
Differential equations of mass and momentum (Eulerequation), Bernoulli’s equation and its applications.
Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function andpotential function.
Potential flow: elementary flow fields and principle ofsuperposition, potential flow past a circular cylinder.
Dimensional analysis: Concept of geometric,kinematic and dynamic similarity, importance of nondimensional numbers.
Fullydeveloped pipe flow, laminar and turbulent flows,friction factor, DarcyWeisbach relation.
Qualitative ideas of boundary layer and separation,streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces.
Basic ideas of flow measurement using venturimeter,pitotstatic tube and orifice plate.
Structure : Atomicstructure and bonding in materials. Crystal structure of materials, crystalsystems, unit cells and space lattices, determination of structures of simplecrystals by xray diffraction, miller indices of planes and directions, packinggeometry in metallic, ionic and covalent solids. Concept of amorphous, singleand polycrystalline structures and their effect on properties ofmaterials.Crystal growth techniques.Imperfections in crystalline solids andtheir role in influencing various properties.
Diffusion : Fick’slaws and application of diffusion in sintering, doping of semiconductors andsurface hardening of metals.
Metals and Alloys : Solid solutions, solubility limit, phase rule, binary phase diagrams,intermediate phases, intermetallic compounds, ironiron carbide phase diagram,heat treatment of steels, cold, hot working of metals, recovery,recrystallization and grain growth. Microstrcture, properties and applicationsof ferrous and nonferrous alloys.
Ceramics : Structure,properties, processing and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics.
Polymers : Classification,polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products,processing and applications.
Composites : Propertiesand applications of various composites.
Advanced Materials and Tools : Smart materials, exhibiting ferroelectric,piezoelectric, optoelectric, semiconducting behavior, lasers and opticalfibers, photoconductivity and superconductivity, nanomaterials – synthesis,properties and applications, biomaterials, superalloys, shape memoryalloys.Materials characterization techniques such as, scanning electronmicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanningtunneling microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry.
Mechanical Properties : stressstrain diagrams of metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials,modulus of elasticity, yield strength, tensile strength, toughness, elongation,plastic deformation, viscoelasticity, hardness, impact strength, creep, fatigue,ductile and brittle fracture.
Thermal Properties : Heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion of materials.
Electronic Properties : Concept of energy band diagram for materials – conductors,semiconductors and insulators, electrical conductivity – effect of temperatureon conductility, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, dielectric properties.
Optical Properties : Reflection, refraction, absorption and transmission of electromagneticradiation in solids.
Magnetic Properties : Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials, paramagnetism,diamagnetism, antiferro magnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, magnetichysterisis.
Environmental Degradation : Corrosion and oxidation of materials,prevention.
Equivalent force systems; freebody diagrams; equilibriumequations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; simplerelative motion of particles; force as function of position, time and speed;force acting on a body in motion; laws of motion; law of conservation ofenergy; law of conservation of momentum.
Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains;Mohr’s circle; generalized Hooke’s Law; thermal strain; theories of failure.
Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear andbending stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circularshafts; thin cylinders; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Eulerbuckling.
Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.
Basic Concepts: Continuum, macroscopicapproach, thermodynamic system (closed and open or control volume);thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state diagram,path and process; different modes of work; Zeroth law of thermodynamics;concept of temperature; heat.
First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy, enthalpy,specific heats, first law applied to systems and control volumes, steady andunsteady flow analysis.
Second Law of Thermodynamics: KelvinPlanckand Clausius statements, reversible and irreversible processes, Carnottheorems, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausiusinequality and concept ofentropy, principle of increase of entropy; availability and irreversibility.
Properties of Pure Substances: Thermodynamicproperties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases, PVTbehaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic propertytables and charts, ideal and real gases, equations of state, compressibilitychart.
Thermodynamic Relations: Tds relations, Maxwellequations, JouleThomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion,adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron equation.
Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot vapor powercycle, Ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine Reheat cycle, Air standard Otto cycle, Airstandard Diesel cycle, Airstandard Brayton cycle, Vaporcompressionrefrigeration cycle.
Ideal Gas Mixtures: Dalton’s and Amagat’slaws, calculations of properties, airwater vapor mixtures and simplethermodynamic processes involving them.
Section F: Polymer Science and Engineering
Chemistry of high polymers: Monomers,functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glasstransition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerizationmethods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers andother newer techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivityratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random,alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers,techniques for copolymerizationbulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.
Polymer Characterization: Solubility andswelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average,weight average, viscosity average and Zaverage molecular weights, polymercrystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA),microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.
Synthesis and properties: Commodity andgeneral purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PUpolymers. Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, FluoropolymersThermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds.Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR,Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE.
Polymer blends and composites: Differencebetween blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers forblending, blend miscibilitymiscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics,phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plasticplastic,rubberplastic and rubberrubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibrereinforced composites.
Polymer Technology: Polymer compoundingneedand significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics,crosslinking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.
Polymer rheology: Flow of Newtonian andnonNewtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus ontemperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones andtransitions. Measurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating,parallel plate, coneplate rheometer. Viscoelasticitycreep and stressrelaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics throughcompounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR.
Polymer processing: Compression molding, transfermolding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding,extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubberprocessing in tworoll mill, internal mixer.
Polymer testing: Mechanicalstatic and dynamictensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear,resilience, impact, toughness. Conductivitythermal and electrical, dielectricconstant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surfaceresistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmentalstress cracking resistance.
Food Chemistry and Nutrition : Carbohydrates: Structure and functionalproperties of mono oligopolysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substancesand dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure of proteins in food;Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats,Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls,anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin;Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity,Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning;Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Watersoluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients,Nutrition deficiency diseases.
Food Microbiology : Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detectionof bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbialgrowth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics,serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors,Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meatproducts; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium andAspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichiacoli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese,sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.
Food Products Technology : Processing principles: Canning, chilling,freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage,fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning inplace and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, andmaize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded productsand breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil;Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction,clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam,jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea,coffee, chocolate and essential oilsfrom spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilizedmilk, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder; Animal productsprocessing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization andfreezing of meat, egg powder.
Food Engineering : Massand energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowingthrough pipe, Characteristics of nonNewtonian fluids – generalized viscositycoefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement,Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection,radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simplegeometry, NTU effectiveness relationship of cocurrent and counter currentdouble pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law,Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films andlaminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operationsinvolved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration,centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation ofliquid, solidsolid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations:Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluationin batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot airdrying of solids, spray and freezedrying, freezing and crystallization; Masstransfer operations: Properties of airwater vapor mixture; Humidification anddehumidification operations.
Atomic structure and periodicity: Planck’squantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantummechanical model of hydrogen atom; electronic configuration of atoms; periodictable and periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity,electronegativity, atomic size.
Structure and bonding: Ionic and covalentbonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory andshape of molecules, hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structureparameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy, hydrogen bonding,van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii, lattice energy(BornHaber Cycle).
s.p. and d Block Elements: Oxides, halides andhydrides of alkali and alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, generalcharacteristics of 3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond andcrystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic properties.
Chemical Equilibria: Colligative properties ofsolutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product, common ion effect,hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical analysis,equilibrium constants (K _{c }, K _{p }and K _{x }) forhomogeneous reactions,
Electrochemistry: Conductance, Kohlrausch law,Half Cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, galvanic cells, thermodynamicaspects and their applications.
Reaction Kinetics: Rate constant, order ofreaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and second orderkinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.
Thermodynamics: First law, reversible andirreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff’s equation, heat ofreaction, Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free energy, andwork function. GibbsHelmholtz equation, ClausiusClapeyron equation, freeenergy change and equilibrium constant, Trouton’s rule, Third law ofthermodynamics.
Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism: Elementarytreatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules,Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and Kharash effect, DielsAlder reaction,aromatic electrophilic substitution, orientation effect as exemplified byvarious functional groups. Identification of functional groups by chemicaltests
StructureReactivity Correlations: Acids andbases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism,tautomerism, conformers, concept of aromatic city.
Organization of life.Importance of water.Cell structure andorganelles. Structure and function of biomolecules: Amino acids, Carbohydrates,Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids. Biochemical separation techniques andcharacterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography,electrophoresis, UVvisible, fluorescence and Mass spectrometry. Proteinstructure, folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, RibonucleaseA, Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including its regulationand inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes.
Metabolism and bioenergetics.Generation and utilization ofATP. Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentosephosphate pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen andfatty acid metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogenfixation, amino acids and nucleotides. Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle.
Biological membranes. Transport across membranes. Signaltransduction; hormones and neurotransmitters.
DNA replication, transcription and translation.Biochemicalregulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology and applications:PCR, site directed mutagenesis and DNAmicroarray.
Immune system.Active and passive immunity. Complementsystem. Antibody structure, function and diversity. Cells of the immune system:T, B and macrophages. T and B cell activation. Major histocompatibilty complex.T cell receptor. Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion,immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.
Plant Systematics : Systems of classification (nonphylogenetic vs. phylogenetic – outline),plant groups, molecular systematics.
Plant Anatomy : Plantcell structure, organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, cell wall andmembranes; anatomy of root, stem and leaves, meristems, vascular system, theirontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellarorganization.
Morphogenesis & Development : Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of anangiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seedstorage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.
Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation;organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation,secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.
Physiology and Biochemistry : Plant water relations, transport of minerals andsolutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N _{2 }metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering:photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering;molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of actionand physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function ofbiomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.
Genetics : Principlesof Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping;extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization,regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomalaberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.
Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification : Principles, methods – selection, hybridization,heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic andgametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cellhybridization, markerassisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct andvectormediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and theirapplication in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.
Economic Botany: A general account ofeconomically and medicinally important plants cereals, pulses, plants yieldingfibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs andnarcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.
Plant Pathology: Nature and classification ofplant diseases , diseases ofimportant crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their controlmeasures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection ofpathogens; plantmicrobe beneficial interactions.
Ecology and Environment: Ecosystems – types,dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow;vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation andextinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.
Historical Perspective : Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the fieldof microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role ofmicroorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation ofdiseases.
Methods in Microbiology : Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice ofsterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniquesfor isolation of microorganisms; Light, phase contrast andelectronmicroscopy.
Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity : Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification;Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and theirclassification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function : Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes,mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules,Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles:Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Microbial Growth : Definitionof growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase;Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuousculture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.
Control of Microorganisms : Effect of physical and chemical agents;Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Microbial Metabolism : Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview ofmetabolism; Glycolysis; Pentosephosphate pathway; EntnerDoudoroff pathway;Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobicrespiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosyntheticpathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis ofamino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.
Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction : Normal microbiota; Classification of infectiousdiseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectiousdiseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host;Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immunedeficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
Chemotherapy/Antibiotics : General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs;Antibiotics: Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal andantiviral drugs.
Microbial Genetics : Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Amestest for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation,transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation ofgene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome withspecial reference to E.coli; Phage λand its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept ofmicrobial genomics.
Microbial Ecology: Microbial interactions;Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated withvascular plants.
Animal world: Animal diversity, distribution,systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships.
Evolution: Origin and history of life onearth, theories of evolution, natural selection, adaptation, speciation.
Genetics: Principles of inheritance, molecularbasis of heredity, mutations, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage and mapping ofgenes.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Nucleicacids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription andtranslation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’scycle, glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.
Cell Biology: Structure of cell, cellularorganelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomesand chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basicprinciples of signal transduction).
Animal Anatomy and Physiology: Comparativephysiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, thenervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the reproductivesystem, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.
Parasitology and Immunology: Nature ofparasite, hostparasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, theimmune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immunesystem.
Development Biology: Embryonic development,cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis ofdevelopment, stem cells.
Ecology: The ecosystem, habitats, the foodchain, population dynamics, species diversity, zoogerography, biogeochemicalcycles, conservation biology.
Animal Behaviour: Types of behaviours,courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and memory, socialbehaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution ofanimal behaviour.
Food Chemistry and Nutrition : Carbohydrates: Structure and functionalproperties of mono oligopolysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pecticsubstances and dietary fibre; Proteins: Classification and structure ofproteins in food; Lipids: Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity offats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments: Carotenoids, chlorophylls,anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin;Food flavours: Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes: Specificity,Kinetics and inhibition, Coenzymes, Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning;Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Watersoluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients,Nutrition deficiency diseases.
Food Microbiology : Characteristics of microorganisms: Morphology, structure and detectionof bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbialgrowth in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics,serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilage: Contributing factors,Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meatproducts; Foodborne disease: Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium andAspergillus; Bacterial pathogens: Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichiacoli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Fermented food: Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese,sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, sauerkraut and soya sauce.
Food Products Technology : Processing principles: Canning, chilling,freezing, dehydration, control of water activity, CA and MA storage,fermentation, hurdle technology, addition of preservatives and food additives, Food packaging, cleaning inplace and food laws.; Grain products processing: Milling of rice, wheat, andmaize, parboiling of paddy, production of bread, biscuits, extruded productsand breakfast cereals, Solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation of oil;Fruits, vegetables and plantation products processing: Extraction,clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam,jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea,coffee, chocolate and essential oilsfrom spices; Milk and milk products processing: Pasteurized and sterilizedmilk, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder; Animal productsprocessing: Drying and canning of fish, post mortem changes, tenderization andfreezing of meat, egg powder.
Food Engineering : Massand energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowingthrough pipe, Characteristics of nonNewtonian fluids – generalized viscositycoefficient and Reynolds number, Flow of compressible fluid, Flow measurement,Pumps and compressors; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection,radiation, boiling and condensation, Unsteady state heat transfer in simplegeometry, NTU effectiveness relationship of cocurrent and counter currentdouble pipe heat exchanger; Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion and Fick’s Law,Steady state mass transfer, Convective mass transfer, Permeability of films andlaminates; Mechanical operations: Energy requirement and rate of operationsinvolved in size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration,centrifugation, settling, sieving, flow through porous bed, agitation ofliquid, solidsolid mixing, and single screw extrusion; Thermal operations:Energy requirement and rate of operations involved in process time evaluationin batch and continuous sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot airdrying of solids, spray and freezedrying, freezing and crystallization; Masstransfer operations: Properties of airwater vapor mixture; Humidification anddehumidification operations.
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